|Nickname(s): Air Capital Of The World, ICT|
Location within Sedgwick County (left) and Kansas (right)
|Coordinates: Coordinates: |
|• Mayor||Carl Brewer|
|• City Manager||Robert Layton|
|• City||163.59 sq mi (423.70 km2)|
|• Land||159.29 sq mi (412.56 km2)|
|• Water||4.30 sq mi (11.14 km2)|
|Elevation||1,299 ft (396 m)|
|• Estimate (2013)||386,552|
|• Rank||US: 49th|
|• Density||2,300/sq mi (900/km2)|
|• Metro||637,394 (US: 84th)|
|Time zone||CST (Central) (UTC-6)|
|• Summer (DST)||CDT (UTC-5)|
|ZIP Codes||67201-67221, 67223, 67226-67228, 67230, 67232, 67235, 67260, 67275-67278 |
|FIPS code||20-79000 |
|GNIS feature ID||0473862 |
Wichita // WICH-ə-taw is the largest city in the State of Kansas and the 49th-largest city in the United States. Located in south-central Kansas on the Arkansas River, Wichita is the county seat of Sedgwick County and the principal city of the Wichita metropolitan area. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city population was 382,368; as of 2013, it was estimated to have increased to 386,552. In 2013, the estimated population of the Wichita metropolitan area was 637,394, and that of the larger Wichita-Winfield combined statistical area was 673,598.
The city began as a trading post on the Chisholm Trail in the 1860s, then was incorporated in 1870. It subsequently became a key destination for cattle drives traveling north from Texas to access railroads, earning it the nickname "Cowtown". In the 1920s and 1930s, businessmen and aeronautical engineers established a number of successful aircraft manufacturing companies in Wichita including Beechcraft, Cessna, and Stearman Aircraft. The city transformed into a hub of U.S. aircraft production and became known as "The Air Capital of the World". Beechcraft, Cessna, (both now part of Textron Aviation) and other firms including Learjet, Airbus, and Spirit AeroSystems continue to operate design and manufacturing facilities in Wichita today, and the city remains a major center of the U.S. aircraft industry.
As an industrial hub and the largest city in the state, Wichita is an area center of culture, media, and trade. It hosts several large museums, theatres, parks, and entertainment venues, notably Intrust Bank Arena. Several universities are located in the city including Wichita State University, the third largest in the state. The city's daily newspaper, The Wichita Eagle, has the highest circulation of any newspaper in Kansas, and the Wichita broadcast television market includes the western two-thirds of the state. Wichita is also home to two large shopping centers, Towne East Square and Towne West Square, as well as the Century II Performing Arts & Convention Center and Kansas's largest airport, Wichita Dwight D. Eisenhower National Airport.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Culture
- 6 Sports
- 7 Government
- 8 Education
- 9 Media
- 10 Infrastructure
- 11 Transportation
- 12 Notable people
- 13 Sister cities
- 14 Gallery
- 15 See also
- 16 Notes
- 17 References
- 18 Further reading
- 19 External links
|Thanks 1541||The area was visited by Francisco Vásquez de Coronado in 1541, while he was in search of the fabulous "cities of gold".|
|Thanks 1863||The first permanent settlement in Wichita was a collection of grass houses inhabited by the Wichita tribe in 1863.|
|Thanks 1870||The city began as a trading post on the Chisholm Trail in the 1860s, then was incorporated in 1870.|
|Thanks 1871||The Wichita Police Department, established in 1871, is the city’s law enforcement agency.|
|Thanks 1872||The Wichita Eagle, which began publication in 1872, is the city's major daily newspaper.|
|Thanks 1877||Wichita suffered severe floods of the Arkansas river in 1877, 1904, 1916, 1923, 1944, 1951 and 1955.|
|Thanks 1880||Wichita annexed Delano in 1880.|
|Thanks 1886||The Wichita Fire Department, organized in 1886, operates 22 stations throughout the city.|
|Thanks 1892||The Wichita-Sedgwick County Historical Museum in downtown Wichita occupies the original Wichita city hall, built in 1892.|
|Thanks 1899||February 12: The hottest temperature recorded in Wichita was 114 °F (46 °C) in 1936; the coldest temperature recorded was −22 °F (−30 °C) on February 12, 1899.|
|Thanks 1900||Wichita reached national fame in 1900 when Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) member Carrie Nation decided to carry her crusade against alcohol to Wichita.|
|Thanks 1914||And 1915, oil was discovered nearby and Wichita became a major oil center.|
|Thanks 1916||In total, Wichita and its companies have manufactured an estimated 250,000 aircraft since Clyde Cessna's first Wichita-built aircraft in 1916.|
|Thanks 1917||The Cessna Comet became the first aircraft to be built in Wichita.|
|Thanks 1920||He built a refinery in Potwin Kansas about 20 miles northeast of Wichita.|
|Thanks 1922||The Orpheum Theatre, built in 1922, serves as a downtown venue for smaller shows.|
|Thanks 1925||January: Lloyd Stearman and Walter Beech were both employees of the Swallow Company, but in January 1925 they left Swallow and teamed up with Clyde Cessna to form Travel Air.|
|Thanks 1927||Koch developed a more efficient thermal cracking process for turning crude oil into gasoline which allowed smaller players in the industry to better compete with the oil majors.|
|Thanks 1929||The title was more or less officially accorded to Wichita in 1929 (for 1928 production), by the American airplane manufacturers' national trade association, then known as the Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce.|
|Thanks 1932||March: Beech quit the Curtis-Wright Corporation to form Beech Aircraft, along with his wife Olive Ann, and hired Ted Wells as his chief engineer.|
|Thanks||October: Orchestra leader Gage Brewer introduced the electric guitar to the world from Wichita using an instrument developed by what would later become known as the Rickenbacker Guitar Company.|
|Thanks||November 5: Beech's first aircraft, the Model 17 (later dubbed the "Staggerwing"), was first flown on November 5, 1932.|
|Thanks 1934||Anti-trust action broke up UATC, and Boeing was spun off to house all UATC manufacturing subsidiaries west of the Mississippi river, including Wichita's Stearman. That same year, the Wichita plant began production of the successful Boeing-Stearman Model 75 "Kaydet" Navy and Army - Air Corps primary biplane trainer.|
|Thanks 1935||After the crash of the Boeing XB-17 prototype in 1935, Wichita banker Arthur Kinkaid (IV National Bank of Wichita) supported Boeing and ensured that the Boeing-Stearman plant would remain in Wichita.|
|Thanks 1938||Ironically, White Castle closed all of their restaurants in Wichita in 1938 and has not operated in the state of Kansas after a failed revival attempt in the Kansas City area in the early 1990s.) The entrepreneurial spirit of Wichita led to the creation of one of the first academic centers to study and support entrepreneurship at the Wichita State University Center for Entrepreneurship.|
|Thanks 1944||The city flooded 3 times in 11 days.|
|Thanks 1946||Staggerwing production ended in 1946, replaced by general aviation's first successful, fully modern light aircraft, the V-tailed, four-seat, single-engine Beechcraft Bonanza.|
|Thanks 1954||Civilian airline service moved to the new Wichita Mid-Continent Airport (now known as the Wichita Dwight D. Eisenhower National Airport) on the west side of town.|
|Thanks 1955||Derby Oil was acquired by Colorado Oil & Gas a subsidiary of Colorado Interstate Gas which became part of Coastal Corporation in 1973.|
|Thanks 1958||The project was completed in 1958.|
|Thanks||July: The protest began in July 1958 in Wichita at the Dockum Drug Store, a store in the old Rexall chain, in which protesters would sit at the counter all day until the store closed, ignoring taunts from counterprotesters.|
|Thanks 1960||January: The sit-in ended three weeks later when the owner relented and agreed to serve black patrons, taking place 18 months before the more widely publicized Greensboro sit-ins in January 1960.|
|Thanks 1961||The estate became the new site for the Kapaun Mt.|
|Thanks 1962||The Lear Jet Corporation was established when the Swiss American Aviation Corporation brought the tooling for building a failed ground-attack fighter to Wichita and opened a plant at Wichita's airport.|
|Thanks 1963||February 7: Assembly of the first Learjet aircraft began and the following year, the company was renamed the Lear Jet Corporation.|
|Thanks 1965||September: Particularly destructive tornadoes have struck the Wichita area several times in the course of its history: in September 1965, during the Andover, Kansas Tornado Outbreak of April 1991, and during the Oklahoma tornado outbreak of May 1999.|
|Thanks 1966||Moody's Skidrow Beanery, at 625 E. Douglas in what was to become Old Town, was one of the more famous places in Wichita in the 1960s. It was the scene of a nationally followed First Amendment struggle and was visited by Allen Ginsberg in 1966 (the name had been changed to the Magic Theatre Vortex Art Gallery) where he first read his long poem "Wichita Vortex Sutra".|
|Thanks 1968||Glen Campbell's Wichita Lineman, written by Jimmy Webb, peaked at #1 on Billboard's country singles chart and at #3 on the pop chart in 1968.|
|Thanks 1976||August: Michael Soles, an unemployed welder from Sand Springs, Oklahoma, set up a sniper position on the roof of the Holiday Inn Plaza, then the tallest building in downtown Wichita.|
|Thanks 1980||February 8: Beech Aircraft Corporation was purchased by the Raytheon Corporation and later sold to Onex Corp., which renamed it Hawker Beechcraft.|
|Thanks 1988||The city was also at one time the headquarters of the former Derby Oil Company, which was purchased by Coastal Corporation in 1988.|
|Thanks 1990||Canadian firm Bombardier Aerospace purchased Learjet Corporation.|
|Thanks 1993||The Coastal-Derby refinery was the last to close in 1993 with none remaining thru 2010. It was demolished in 2004.|
|Thanks 1994||Ruby Vroom, released by the band Soul Coughing in 1994, contains a song called "True Dreams of Wichita".|
|Thanks 1997||August: Boeing merged with McDonnell Douglas.|
|Thanks 1998||A 20-foot (6.1 m)-long bronze sculpture first announced in 1998 at a cost of $3 million marks the site of the successful sit-in, with a lunch counter and patrons depicting the protest.|
|Thanks 2003||Wichita's principal industrial sector is manufacturing, which accounted for 21.6 percent of area employment in 2003.|
|Thanks 2004||The Kansas Spine Hospital opened in 2004, as did a critical care tower at Wesley Medical Center.|
|Thanks 2005||A letter that Reader sent on a floppy disc included meta-data that lead police to identify and arrest him.|
|Thanks||June: Sedgwick County voters approved a sales tax raise to build a new arena downtown to replace the aging Kansas Coliseum, located north of the city.|
|Thanks 2006||July: CNN/Money and Money ranked Wichita 9th on their list of the 10 best U.S big cities in which to live.|
|Thanks 2007||Wichita built 977 aircraft, ranging from single-engine light aircraft to the world's fastest civilian jet; one-fifth of the civilian aircraft produced in United States that year, plus numerous small military aircraft.|
|Thanks 2008||MSN Real Estate ranked Wichita 1st on its list of most affordable cities.|
|Thanks 2009||May: Wichita was also named the most "Uniquely American" city by Newsmax magazine in a May 2009 piece written by Peter Greenberg.|
|Thanks 2010||January: Intrust Bank Arena features 22 suites, 2 party suites, 40 loge boxes and over 300 premium seats with a total potential capacity of over 15,000. This arena in the middle of Wichita opened in January 2010.|
|Thanks||July: Via Christi Health, which is the largest provider of healthcare services in Kansas, opened a hospital that will serve the northwest area of Wichita.|
|Thanks 2011||The festival was moved from May to June because of rain during previous festivals.|
|Thanks||February 10: Readings as low as −17 °F (−27 °C) and as high as 111 °F (44 °C) occurred as recently as February 10, 2011 and July 29–30, 2012, respectively.|
|Thanks 2012||AMD planned to release a new processor, code named Wichita, in 2012, but the project was cancelled in favor of a newer design.|
|Thanks 2013||The estimated population of the Wichita metropolitan area was 637,394, and that of the larger Wichita-Winfield combined statistical area was 673,598.|
|Thanks 2014||Cessna parent company Textron acquired Beechcraft and combined both Cessna and Beechcraft (including the Hawker brand) into a new division known as Textron Aviation.|
Prehistory and exploration
The site at the confluence of the Arkansas and Little Arkansas Rivers has served as a trading center and meeting place for nomadic hunting people for at least 11,000 years. Human habitation in the Wichita area has been dated, in archeological digs, as far back as 3,000 B.C.
The area was visited by Francisco Vásquez de Coronado in 1541, while he was in search of the fabulous "cities of gold". While there, he encountered a group of Native Americans whom he called Quiviras and who have been identified by archaeological and historical studies as the Wichita. By 1719, these people had moved south to Oklahoma, where they met French traders.
The first permanent settlement in Wichita was a collection of grass houses inhabited by the Wichita tribe in 1863. They had moved back to Wichita from Oklahoma during the American Civil War because of their pro-Union sentiments.
Pioneer traders and boosters
Pioneer trader Jesse Chisholm, a half-white, half-Native American who was illiterate but who spoke multiple Native American languages, established a trading post at the site in the 1860s, and Chisholm traded cattle and goods with the Wichita tribe at points south along a trail from Wichita into present-day Oklahoma (and eventually into Texas) that became known as the Chisholm Trail, which soon became legendary in Western lore. Chisholm was soon eclipsed in the area by three astute businessmen: commercial buffalo hunters and traders James R. Mead (of Iowa), William Greiffenstein (a German immigrant merchant), and Buffalo Bill Mathewson (not to be confused with Buffalo Bill Cody); these men led the initial commercial development of the area, becoming key landowners of what became the city of Wichita.
Hunters, farmers and Native Americans in the area all turned to the newborn tiny settlement as a principal trading center for the area, while Wichita's entrepreneurs began an aggressive sales campaign to lure more settlers (their future customers and tenants) to the area, with the "boosterism" typical of successful early prairie settlements. The city, on the east bank of the Arkansas River, was officially incorporated in 1870. Among the signatories on the town charter was a lone woman, the town laundry operator, Catherine "The Widow" McCarty, whose elder teenage son, after leaving Wichita, would become the infamous gunman, Billy the Kid.
Wichita's position on the Chisholm Trail made it a destination for cattle drives headed north to access railroads to eastern markets. The Chisholm Trail ran along the east side of the community from 1867 to 1871. As a result, Wichita became a railhead for cattle drives from Texas and other south-western points, from which it has derived its nickname "Cowtown." Wichita's neighboring town on the opposite (west) bank of the Arkansas River, Delano, a village of saloons and brothels, had a particular reputation for lawlessness, largely accommodating the rough, visiting cattlemen. The Wichita/Delano community gained a wild reputation, however, the east (Wichita) side of the river was kept more civil, thanks to numerous well-known lawmen who passed through, employed to help keep the rowdy cowboys in line. Among those was Wyatt Earp.
Following the incorporation of the city in 1870, rapid immigration resulted in a land boom involving speculation into the late 1880s. Wichita annexed Delano in 1880. By 1890, Wichita had become the third-largest city in the state (behind Kansas City and Topeka), with a population of nearly 24,000. After the boom the city suffered from 15 years of comparative depression and slow growth.
Wichita reached national fame in 1900 when Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) member Carrie Nation decided to carry her crusade against alcohol to Wichita. On December 27 of that year she entered the Carey House bar in downtown Wichita and smashed the place with a rock and a pool ball. Although she had visited all the bars in Wichita the night before, demanding that they close their doors, the John Noble painting Cleopatra at the Roman Bath in the Carey House had drawn her particular wrath.
An island in the middle of the Arkansas River, named Ackerman Island, was home to an amusement park and a dance pavilion. The island was connected to the West Bank of the river through a Work Projects Administration (WPA) project in the 1930s.
In 1914-1915 oil and gas were first discovered in nearby Butler county. These discoveries form part of the vast Mid-Continent oil province. Several local producers established headquarters, refineries, and retail outlets, in Wichita as it was the nearest large city. 
Archibald L. Derby (1875-1956) participated in oil booms in Southeast Kansas, Oklahoma, and in 1916 he drilled a successful well in Butler county.  He went on to found Derby Oil Company that owned a refinery in Wichita at 21st and Washington Street.  and had gas stations throughout the region. In 1955 Derby Oil was acquired by Colorado Oil & Gas a subsidiary of Colorado Interstate Gas  which became part of Coastal Corporation in 1973. 
John (Jack) Vickers (1891-1940) was another Wichita oil mogul who got his start in the Butler oil fields. In 1920 he built a refinery in Potwin Kansas about 20 miles northeast of Wichita. In 1934, at 8500 E Central, he built one of the largest mansions (named Vickridge) seen in Kansas up to that time. In 1961 the estate became the new site for the Kapaun Mt. Carmel High School. 
By 1917 there were 5 refineries operating in Wichita. Seven more were built in the 1920's. But only 3 were still operating at the end of that decade.  The Coastal-Derby refinery was the last to close in 1993 with none remaining thru 2010. It was demolished in 2004. 
In 1925 Fred C. Koch, a chemical engineer, joined a fellow MIT classmate, P.C. Keith, at Keith-Winkler Engineering in Wichita. Following the departure of Keith in 1925, the firm became Winkler-Koch Engineering Company.  In 1927, Koch developed a more efficient thermal cracking process for turning crude oil into gasoline which allowed smaller players in the industry to better compete with the oil majors. The larger oil companies quickly sued in response, filing 44 different lawsuits against Koch, and embroiling him in litigation for years. Koch was to prevail in all but one of the suits (which was later over-turned due to the fact that the judge had been bribed). This extended litigation effectively put Winkler-Koch out of business in the U.S. for several years. Koch turned his focus to foreign markets, including the Soviet Union, where Winkler-Koch built 15 cracking units between 1929 and 1932. Koch and his family would go on to become the wealthiest residents of both Wichita and the state of Kansas.
"The Air Capital of the World"
In the 20th century, aircraft pioneers such as Clyde Cessna and Walter Beech began projects that led to Wichita's establishment as the "Air Capital of the World". The aircraft corporations Stearman, Cessna, Mooney, and Beechcraft were all founded in Wichita in the late 1920s and early 1930s.
In 1914 and 1915, oil was discovered nearby and Wichita became a major oil center. The money derived from oil allowed local entrepreneurs to invest in a nascent airplane industry. In 1917 the Cessna Comet became the first aircraft to be built in Wichita.  In 1920, oilmen Jacob M. "Jake" Mollendick and Billy Burke invited young Chicago barnstormer and aircraft builder Emil Matthew "Matty" Laird to come to Wichita to build his new airplane design, backed by their money. The Laird Swallow became an instant success, the first successful "commercial" airplane manufactured in the United States; Laird built 43 of them between 1920 and 1923. When Matty Laird returned to Chicago, the Wichita enterprise was renamed Swallow Airplane Company. Lloyd Stearman and Walter Beech were both employees of the Swallow Company, but in January 1925 they left Swallow and teamed up with Clyde Cessna to form Travel Air. Stearman left Travel Air in 1926 to start Stearman Aircraft in Venice, California, and Cessna quit in January 1927 to start Cessna. In 1927 Stearman would relocate his factory back to Wichita.
This varied aircraft industry, along with Wichita becoming a test center for new aviation, established Wichita as the "Air Capital of the World". The title was more or less officially accorded to Wichita in 1929 (for 1928 production), by the American airplane manufacturers' national trade association, then known as the Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce.
In 1927 ground on the southeast side of town was purchased to use as the site for the Wichita Municipal Airport. However the great depression interrupted construction. The terminal and runways were finished as WPA projects in the 1930's. In the 1940's the Municipal Airport site also hosted the Wichita Army Airfield and Boeing Airplane Company Plant No. 1. In the 1950's the military took full control of the site and named it McConnell Air Force Base. In 1954, civilian airline service moved to the new Wichita Mid-Continent Airport (now known as the Wichita Dwight D. Eisenhower National Airport) on the west side of town.  Other airports in Wichita include the Colonel James Jabara Airport and Beech Field.
Travel Air, with Walter Beech at the helm, grew to over 600 employees and operated from a huge factory complex constructed a few miles outside the city from 1927 to 1929. Due to so many employees working at such a large complex, it was dubbed "Travel Air City" by Wichita residents. The company merged with the huge Curtiss-Wright Corporation in the Roaring Twenties' heyday of company buyouts and takeovers just two months before the Stock Market crash in 1929. Workers were laid off by the hundreds during 1930 and 1931 and by the fall of 1932, the remaining Travel Air employees were let go, the equipment was sold, and the entire Travel Air plant sat empty.
In March 1932, Beech quit the Curtis-Wright Corporation to form Beech Aircraft, along with his wife Olive Ann, and hired Ted Wells as his chief engineer. The first few "Beechcraft" were built in the vacant Cessna Aircraft plant, which had also closed during the depression; Beech later leased and then bought the Travel Air plant from Curtiss-Wright and moved his factory to this plant. Beech's first aircraft, the Model 17 (later dubbed the "Staggerwing"), was first flown on November 5, 1932. Nearly 100 Staggerwings are still in existence, many in flying condition. However, the aircraft that would propel the small company into a huge corporation was the Model 18 "Twin Beech", of which thousands were built from 1937 to 1969—the longest continuously produced aircraft in the world when production ended.
Staggerwing production ended in 1946, replaced by general aviation's first successful, fully modern light aircraft, the V-tailed, four-seat, single-engine Beechcraft Bonanza. Approximately 750 were built and sold in the first year, despite a recession and a devastating aviation industry shakeout. In various forms, the Bonanza has now become the world's longest continuously produced aircraft, still in production in a straight-tailed, six-seat version. Other models evolved from the Bonanza, ultimately culminating in the twin-turboprop Beechcraft King Air and Beechcraft Super King Air, the world's most popular turbine-powered business aircraft. The Beech line added imported business jets from Britain and Japan, a military trainer from Switzerland, and also produced military drones. On February 8, 1980, Beech Aircraft Corporation was purchased by the Raytheon Corporation and later sold to Onex Corp., which renamed it Hawker Beechcraft. Major problems followed both takeovers, including troubled developments of the advanced business turboprop Beechcraft Starship and jets, and by late 2012 / early 2013 the company entered bankruptcy proceedings—emerging without its troubled business-jet line, as Beechcraft Corp., focused solely on its popular line of propeller-driven aircraft and military drones. In 2014, Cessna parent company Textron acquired Beechcraft and combined both Cessna and Beechcraft (including the Hawker brand) into a new division known as Textron Aviation.
After the 1929 stock market crash, Stearman and Boeing were acquired by United Aircraft and Transport Corporation (UATC). In 1934, anti-trust action broke up UATC, and Boeing was spun off to house all UATC manufacturing subsidiaries west of the Mississippi river, including Wichita's Stearman. That same year, the Wichita plant began production of the successful Boeing-Stearman Model 75 "Kaydet" Navy and Army - Air Corps primary biplane trainer. After the crash of the Boeing XB-17 prototype in 1935, Wichita banker Arthur Kinkaid (IV National Bank of Wichita) supported Boeing and ensured that the Boeing-Stearman plant would remain in Wichita. By mid-2014, Boeing had wound down its Wichita operations and put its remaining facilities in the city up for sale.
The city experienced a population explosion during World War II when it became a major manufacturing center for the Boeing B-29 bombers needed in the war effort. By 1945, an average of 4.2 bombers were being produced daily in Wichita. For many years Boeing was Wichita's largest employer. Wichita saw some of its fastest population growth of the 20th century during the peak of the Cold War when Wichita was the headquarters for the Boeing Military Airplane Company and home to the McConnell Air Force Base. BoMAC produced all Boeing B-47 Stratojet aircraft and 63% of the Boeing B-52 Stratofortresses in Wichita. At various times McConnell Air Force Base hosted the 3520th Combat Crew Training Wing (ATC) and 4347th Combat Crew Training Wing (SAC) B-47 training units, the 381st Strategic Missile Wing that controlled various LGM-25C Titan II missile silos around Wichita, the 388th Tactical Fighter Wing, 23d Tactical Fighter Wing, 91st Air Refueling Squadron, 384th Air Refueling Wing/Bombardment Wing, and the Kansas Air National Guard 184th Tactical Fighter Training Group. Wichita's mid-continental location made it ideal for basing strategic assets, allowing maximum time to react to a Soviet missile attack launched over the north pole or from oceangoing submarines.
Several aircraft from McConnell AFB crashed in the city, including:
- On March 28, 1956 a Boeing B-47 Stratojet, 51-2175, of the 3520th FTW suffered an explosion in a bomb bay fuel tank and shed its wings over East Wichita crashing four miles (6 km) NE of the city, killing three crew.
- On January 16, 1965 a fuel-laden Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker (57-1442, c/n 17513) crashed after an engine failure shortly after take off from McConnell. It incinerated an area near the intersection of 20th and Piatt in north-central Wichita, killing 23 on the ground plus the 7 crew members; the largest non-natural disaster in Kansas history. The site of the crash was turned into Piatt Memorial Park. A monument was erected at the park in 2007. 
- On March 5, 1974 a Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker (57-1500, of the 91st Air Refueling Squadron, 384th Air Refueling Wing) carrying 136,000 pounds of fuel crashed 3,000 feet from the main runway, after it apparently lost power. Two of the seven crew were killed.
In 1962, the Lear Jet Corporation was established when the Swiss American Aviation Corporation brought the tooling for building a failed ground-attack fighter to Wichita and opened a plant at Wichita's airport. On February 7, 1963, assembly of the first Learjet aircraft began and the following year, the company was renamed the Lear Jet Corporation. In 1990 Canadian firm Bombardier Aerospace purchased Learjet Corporation.
In the 1970s, airplane designer/entrepreneur Jim Bede — who developed the BD-1 into the American Yankee — returned to the Wichita area to develop and market the Bede BD-5 micro-kitplane in nearby Newton, Kansas. Bede's chief aeronautical engineer was Burt Rutan, who, with his brother, test pilot Dick Rutan, helped develop the world's first government-certified all-composite airplane, the Beech Starship.
In August 1997, Boeing merged with McDonnell Douglas.  The company relocated the headquaters of the BoMAC division to McDonnell Douglas' St. Louis facility. In the 1990s, Boeing responded to conflict with labor unions by eventually selling off most of its commercial-aircraft subassembly factory, and its operations, to a newly created subcontractor, Spirit AeroSystems (initially largely owned by Boeing, itself), which continued the extensive Boeing jetliner manufacturing operations there -- but without the financial burden of the original Boeing labor-union contracts. The facility continues as the supplier of major parts for all Boeing jetliners, including the front end of all Boeing jetliners, and 75% of Boeing's most popular plane, the Boeing 737, including the entire fuselage of that plane, which is shipped by rail to Seattle for final assembly. Other subassemblies for other Boeing aircraft (particularly engine nacelles), are built by Spirit at the Wichita factory.
In the early 21st Century, Wichita aircraft manufacturing saw a return to its roots with the development of a small aircraft-manufacturing enterprise, Belite Aircraft Corp., at a local private airstrip (the Wichita Glider Port, northeast of town). Belite's initial product was the relabeled single-seat version of the popular Skystar Kitfox, an metal-framed and fabric-skinned light sport aircraft.
In 2012, Boeing announced plans to shut down its remaining Wichita facilities in the face of Pentagon budget cuts. However, the city remains a major manufacturing center for the aircraft industry today, with Textron (Cessna, Beechcraft and Textron Aviation) and Bombardier having major manufacturing centers in town, as well as design and engineering facilities run by Airbus. "
Wichita was also a significant entrepreneurial business center during the pre and post-war period, with Coleman, Mentholatum, Pizza Hut, Freddy's Frozen Custard & Steakburgers, White Castle, Taco Tico, and Koch Industries having all been founded in Wichita. (Ironically, White Castle closed all of their restaurants in Wichita in 1938 and has not operated in the state of Kansas after a failed revival attempt in the Kansas City area in the early 1990s.) The entrepreneurial spirit of Wichita led to the creation of one of the first academic centers to study and support entrepreneurship at the Wichita State University Center for Entrepreneurship.
In October 1932, orchestra leader Gage Brewer introduced the electric guitar to the world from Wichita using an instrument developed by what would later become known as the Rickenbacker Guitar Company.
The Dockum Drug Store sit-in was one of the first organized lunch-counter sit-ins for the purpose of integrating segregated establishments in the United States. The protest began in July 1958 in Wichita at the Dockum Drug Store, a store in the old Rexall chain, in which protesters would sit at the counter all day until the store closed, ignoring taunts from counterprotesters. The sit-in ended three weeks later when the owner relented and agreed to serve black patrons, taking place 18 months before the more widely publicized Greensboro sit-ins in January 1960. A 20-foot (6.1 m)-long bronze sculpture first announced in 1998 at a cost of $3 million marks the site of the successful sit-in, with a lunch counter and patrons depicting the protest.
Recent history has seen increased development in downtown and to the east and west sides of Wichita. In June 2005, Sedgwick County voters approved a sales tax raise to build a new arena downtown to replace the aging Kansas Coliseum, located north of the city. This is considered by some as a stepping stone to launch new development downtown.
From 1974 to 1991 serial killer Dennis Rader murdered 10 victims in and around the Wichita area. Until his identity was finally discovered by police, he was known as the "BTK killer". Reader was particularly known for sending taunting letters to police and the media. In 2005 a letter that Reader sent on a floppy disc included meta-data that lead police to identify and arrest him. 
In August 1976, Michael Soles, an unemployed welder from Sand Springs, Oklahoma, set up a sniper position on the roof of the Holiday Inn Plaza, then the tallest building in downtown Wichita. Over the course of an eleven minute shooting spree, he killed 3 and wounded 6. The gunman was wounded by police and taken into custody. 
Downtown Wichita is located at  Wichita is located in south-central Kansas at the junction of Interstate 35 and U.S. Route 54. Located in the Midwestern United States, it is 157 mi (253 km) north of Oklahoma City, 181 mi (291 km) southwest of Kansas City, and 439 mi (707 km) east-southeast of Denver.(37.688888, −97.336111) at an elevation of 1,299 feet (396 m).
The city lies on the Arkansas River near the western edge of the Flint Hills in the Wellington-McPherson Lowlands region of the Great Plains. The topography of the area is characterized by the broad alluvial plain of the Arkansas River valley and the moderately rolling slopes which rise to the higher lands on either side.
The Arkansas follows a winding course, south-southeast through Wichita, roughly bisecting the city. It is joined along its course by several tributaries all of which flow generally south. The largest is the Little Arkansas River, which enters the city from the north and joins the Arkansas immediately west of downtown. Further east lies Chisholm Creek which joins the Arkansas in the far southern part of the city. The Chisholm's own tributaries drain much of the city's eastern half; these include the creek's West, Middle, and East Forks as well as, further south, Gypsum Creek. The Gypsum is fed by its own tributary, Dry Creek. Two more of the Arkansas' tributaries lie west of its course; from east to west, these are Big Slough Creek and Cowskin Creek. Both streams run south through the western part of the city. Fourmile Creek, a tributary of the Walnut River, flows south through the far eastern part of the city.
As the core of the Wichita metropolitan area, the city is surrounded by suburbs. Bordering Wichita on the north are, from west to east, Valley Center, Park City, Kechi, and Bel Aire. Enclosed within east-central Wichita is Eastborough. Adjacent to the city's east side is Andover. McConnell Air Force Base lies immediately southeast of the city. To the south, from east to west, are Derby and Haysville. Goddard and Maize border Wichita to the west and northwest, respectively.
Wichita lies in the northern limits of North America's humid subtropical climate zone (Köppen Cfa), typically experiencing hot, humid summers and cold, dry winters. Located on the Great Plains far from any large moderating influences such as mountains or large bodies of water, Wichita often experiences severe weather with thunderstorms occurring frequently during the spring and summer months. These occasionally bring large hail as well as frequent lightning, and tornadoes sometimes occur. Particularly destructive tornadoes have struck the Wichita area several times in the course of its history: in September 1965, during the Andover, Kansas Tornado Outbreak of April 1991, and during the Oklahoma tornado outbreak of May 1999. Winters are cold and dry, but, since Wichita is located roughly midway between Canada and the Gulf of Mexico, cold spells and warm spells are equally frequent. Warm air masses from the Gulf of Mexico can raise mid-winter temperatures into the 50s and even 60s while cold, frigid air masses from the Arctic can occasionally plunge the temperature below 0 °F. Wind speed in the city averages 13 mph (21 km/h). On average, January is the coldest month, July is the hottest month, and June is the wettest month.
The average temperature in the city is 56.9 °F (13.8 °C). Over the course of a year, the monthly daily average temperature ranges from 32.2 °F (0.1 °C) in January to 81.1 °F (27.3 °C) in July. The high temperature reaches or exceeds 90 °F (32 °C) an average of 62 days a year and 100 °F (38 °C) an average of 12 days a year. The minimum temperature falls to or below 10 °F (−12 °C) on an average 8.5 days a year. The hottest temperature recorded in Wichita was 114 °F (46 °C) in 1936; the coldest temperature recorded was −22 °F (−30 °C) on February 12, 1899. Readings as low as −17 °F (−27 °C) and as high as 111 °F (44 °C) occurred as recently as February 10, 2011 and July 29–30, 2012, respectively.
During an average year, Wichita receives 32.69 inches (830 mm) of precipitation, most of which occurs in the warmer months, and experiences 88 days of measurable precipitation. The average relative humidity is 80% in the morning and 49% in the evening. Annual snowfall averages 15.6 inches (40 cm). Measurable snowfall occurs an average of ten days per year with at least an inch of snow being received on five of those days. Snow depth of at least an inch occurs an average of 15 days a year. The average window for freezing temperatures is October 26 through April 11.
|Climate data for Wichita Mid-Continent Airport, Kansas (1981–2010 normals, extremes 1888–present)[a]|
|Record high °F (°C)||75
|Average high °F (°C)||42.5
|Average low °F (°C)||21.9
|Record low °F (°C)||−15
|Precipitation inches (mm)||0.83
|Snowfall inches (cm)||3.6
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||4.7||5.4||8.2||8.0||11.4||10.0||7.3||7.9||7.0||7.0||5.3||5.7||87.9|
|Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||3.0||2.1||1.2||0.2||0||0||0||0||0||0.1||0.6||2.8||10.0|
|Average humidity (%)||69.9||68.3||63.8||62.8||67.0||64.3||58.9||61.1||66.8||65.1||70.0||71.7||65.8|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||190.9||186.4||230.4||257.8||289.8||305.0||342.1||309.2||245.6||226.3||170.2||168.7||2,922.4|
|Percent possible sunshine||62||62||62||65||66||69||76||73||66||65||56||57||66|
|Source: National Weather Service (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990); The Weather Channel|
Wichita has several recognized areas and neighborhoods. The downtown area is generally considered to be east of the Arkansas River, west of Washington Street, north of Kellogg and south of 13th Street. The downtown area contains landmarks such as Century II, the Garvey Center, and the Epic Center. Old Town is also part of downtown; this 2-3 square mile area is home to a cluster of night clubs, bars, restaurants, a movie theater, shops, and apartments and condominiums, many of which make use of historical warehouse-type spaces.
The two most notable residential areas of Wichita are Riverside and College Hill. Riverside is northwest of the downtown area, across the Arkansas River, and surrounds the 120-acre (0.49 km2) Riverside Park. College Hill is east of the downtown area, south of Wichita State University. College Hill is one of the more historic neighborhoods, along with Delano on the west side and Midtown in the north-central city.
In terms of population, Wichita is the largest city in Kansas and the 49th largest city in the United States.
As of the 2010 census, there were 382,368 people, 151,818 households, and 94,862 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,304.8 per square mile (889.9/km²). There were 167,310 housing units at an average density of 1,022.1 per square mile (475.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 71.9% White, 11.5% African American, 4.8% Asian, 1.2% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 6.2% from other races, and 4.3% from two or more races. Hispanics and Latinos of any race were 15.3% of the population.
Of the 151,818 households, 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.1% were married couples living together, 5.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 13.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.5% were non-families. 31.1% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48, and the average family size was 3.14.
The median age in the city was 33.9 years. 26.6% of residents were under the age of 18; 10.1% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 26.9% were from 25 to 44; 24.9% were from 45 to 64; and 11.5% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 49.3% male and 50.7% female.
The median income for a household in the city was $44,477, and the median income for a family was $57,088. Males had a median income of $42,783 versus $32,155 for females. The per capita income for the city was $24,517. About 12.1% of families and 15.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.5% of those under age 18 and 9.9% of those age 65 or over.
Wichita is the principal city of both the Wichita Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) and the Wichita-Winfield Combined Statistical Area (CSA). The Wichita MSA encompasses Sedgwick, Butler, Harvey, and Sumner counties and, as of 2010, had an population of 623,061, making it the 84th largest MSA in the United States.
The larger Wichita-Winfield CSA also includes Cowley County and, as of 2013, had an estimated population of 673,598. Nearby Reno County is not a part of the Wichita MSA or Wichita-Winfield CSA, but, were it included, it would add an additional population of 64,511 as of 2010.
Wichita's principal industrial sector is manufacturing, which accounted for 21.6 percent of area employment in 2003. Aircraft manufacturing has long dominated the local economy, and plays such an important role that it has the ability to influence the economic health of the entire region; the state offers tax breaks and other incentives to aircraft manufacturers.
Healthcare is Wichita's second-largest industry, employing approximately 28,000 people in the local area. Since healthcare needs remain fairly consistent regardless of the economy, this field was not subject to the same pressures that affected other industries in the early 2000s. The Kansas Spine Hospital opened in 2004, as did a critical care tower at Wesley Medical Center. In July 2010, Via Christi Health, which is the largest provider of healthcare services in Kansas, opened a hospital that will serve the northwest area of Wichita. Via Christi Hospital on St. Teresa is the system's fifth hospital to serve the Wichita community.
Thanks to the early 20th-Century oil boom in neighboring Butler County, Kansas, Wichita became a major oil town, with dozens of oil exploration companies and support enterprises. Most famous of these was Koch Industries, today a global natural-resources conglomerate, which is still headquartered in Wichita. The city was also at one time the headquarters of the former Derby Oil Company, which was purchased by Coastal Corporation in 1988.
Koch Industries and Cargill, the two largest privately held companies in the United States, both operate headquarters facilities in Wichita. Koch Industries' primary global corporate headquarters complex is located in a large office-tower complex in northeast Wichita. Cargill Meat Solutions Div., at one time the nation's 3rd-largest beef producer, is headquartered downtown. Other firms with headquarters in Wichita include roller-coaster manufacturer Chance Morgan, gourmet food retailer Dean & Deluca, renewable energy company Alternative Energy Solutions, and Coleman Company, a manufacturer of camping and outdoor recreation supplies. Prior to its dissolution Air Midwest, the nation's first officially certificated "commuter" airline, was founded and based in Wichita, evolving into the nation's 8th largest regional airline.
As of 2013, 68.2% of the population over the age of 16 was in the labor force. 0.6% was in the armed forces, and 67.6% was in the civilian labor force with 61.2% employed and 6.4% unemployed. The occupational composition of the employed civilian labor force was: 33.3% in management, business, science, and arts; 25.1% in sales and office occupations; 17.2% in service occupations; 14.0% in production, transportation, and material moving; 10.4% in natural resources, construction, and maintenance. The three industries employing the largest percentages of the working civilian labor force were: educational services, health care, and social assistance (22.3%); manufacturing (19.2%); and retail trade (11.0%).
The cost of living in Wichita is below average; compared to a U.S. average of 100, the cost of living index for the city is 84.0. As of 2013, the median home value in the city was $117,500, the median selected monthly owner cost was $1,194 for housing units with a mortgage and $419 for those without, and the median gross rent was $690.
From the early to late 20th century, aircraft pioneers such as Clyde Cessna, "Matty" Laird, Lloyd Stearman, Walter Beech, Al Mooney and Bill Lear began aircraft-manufacturing enterprises that would lead to Wichita becoming the nation's leading city in numbers of aircraft produced. The aircraft corporations E. M. Laird Aviation Company (the nation's first successful commercial airplane manufacturer), Travel Air (started by Beech, Stearman and Cessna), Stearman, Cessna, Beechcraft and Mooney were all founded in Wichita between 1920 and early 1932. By 1931, Boeing (of Seattle, Washington) had absorbed Stearman, creating "Boeing-Wichita", which would eventually grow to become Kansas' largest employer.
Today, Cessna Aircraft Co. (the world's highest-volume airplane manufacturer) and Beechcraft remain based in Wichita having merged into Textron Aviation in 2014, along with Learjet and Boeing's chief subassembly supplier, Spirit AeroSystems. Airbus maintains a workforce in Wichita, and Bombardier (parent company of Learjet) has other divisions in Wichita as well. Over 50 other aviation businesses operate in the Wichita MSA, as well dozens of suppliers and subcontractors to the local aircraft manufacturers. In total, Wichita and its companies have manufactured an estimated 250,000 aircraft since Clyde Cessna's first Wichita-built aircraft in 1916.
In the early 2000s, a national and international recession combined with the after effects of the 9/11/2001 terrorist attacks to depress the aviation sub-sector in and around Wichita. Orders for new aircraft plummeted, prompting Wichita's five largest aircraft manufacturers, Boeing Co., Cessna Aircraft Co., Bombardier Learjet Inc., Hawker Beechcraft and Raytheon Aircraft Co.—to slash a combined 15,000 jobs between 2001 and 2004. In response, these companies began developing small- and mid-sized airplanes to appeal to business and corporate users. In 2007, Wichita built 977 aircraft, ranging from single-engine light aircraft to the world's fastest civilian jet; one-fifth of the civilian aircraft produced in United States that year, plus numerous small military aircraft. In early 2012, Boeing announced it would be closing its Wichita plant by the end of 2013.
The Wichita River Festival has been held in the Downtown and Old Town areas of the city since 1972. It has featured events, musical entertainment, sporting events, traveling exhibits, cultural and historical activities, plays, interactive children's events, a flea market, river events, a parade, block parties, a food court, fireworks and souvenirs for the roughly 370,000+ patrons who attend each year. In 2011, the festival was moved from May to June because of rain during previous festivals.
The annual Wichita Black Arts Festival, held in the spring, celebrates the arts, crafts and creativity of Wichita's large African-American community. It usually takes place in Central-Northeast Wichita. A Juneteeth event and parade also are common annual events.
The International Student Association at Wichita State University presents an annual international cultural exhibition and food festival, on the campus at WSU, providing an inexpensive sampling of global culture and cuisine to the general public.
One or more large Renaissance fairs occur annually, including the "RenFair" in conjunction with the "Kingdom of Calontir" of the SCA (Society for Creative Anachronism). The fairs vary in length from one day to a week, typically at Sedgwick County Park or Newman University.
The Wichita Public Library's Academy Awards Shorts program is reportedly the oldest annual, complete, free public screening outside of Hollywood of the full array of short films nominated for an Academy Award ("Oscar"). In late winter, shortly before the Academy Awards ceremonies, the films--including all nominated documentary, live action, and animated shorts--are presented, for free, at the Library and in local theaters and other venues around Wichita. Wichita's former Congressman, Motion Picture Association President Dan Glickman, has served as Honorary Chair of the event, and some of the filmmakers have attended and visited with the audiences.
The Tallgrass Film Festival has been held in downtown Wichita since 2003. It draws over 100 independent feature and short films from all over the world for three days each October. Notable people from the entertainment industry have attended in the past.
Aviation-related events are common in the Wichita area, including air shows, fly-ins, air races, aviation conferences, exhibitions, and trade shows. The city's two main air shows, which are generally held in alternating years, are the city-sponsored civilian Wichita Flight Festival (originally the "Kansas Flight Festival") and the military-sponsored McConnell Air Force Base Open House and Airshow. Both are large regional air shows with famous acts and multi-million-dollar aircraft displays (including many Wichita-built aircraft). In addition, numerous local, regional, and national aviation organizations host fly-ins, conferences, exhibitions and trade shows in the Wichita area on irregular schedules.
Points of interest
The City of Wichita is a cultural center for Kansas, home to several art and history museums and performing arts groups. The Music Theatre of Wichita, Wichita Grand Opera, and Wichita Symphony Orchestra perform regularly at the Century II Convention Hall downtown. The Orpheum Theatre, built in 1922, serves as a downtown venue for smaller shows.
Intrust Bank Arena features 22 suites, 2 party suites, 40 loge boxes and over 300 premium seats with a total potential capacity of over 15,000. This arena in the middle of Wichita opened in January 2010.
Small art galleries are scattered around the city with some clustered in the districts of Old Town, Delano and south Commerce street. These galleries started the Final Friday Gallery crawl event, where visitors tour attractions for free in the evening on the last Friday of each month. Larger museums began participating and staying open late on Final Fridays shortly after its beginning.
The Wichita Art Museum is the largest art museum in the state of Kansas, and contains 7,000 works in permanent collections. This museum is a hub of the city's museums along the Arkansas River: the Mid-America All-Indian Center, Old Cowtown living history museum, Exploration Place science and discovery center, The Keeper of the Plains statue and its associated display highlighting the daily lives of plains Indians, and Botanica, The Wichita Gardens. Botanica boasts 24 themed gardens including the popular Butterfly Garden and the award-winning Sally Stone Sensory Garden.
The Sedgwick County Zoo in the northwest part of Wichita is the most popular outdoor tourist attraction in the state of Kansas, and is home to more than 2,500 animals representing 500 different species. The zoo is next to Sedgwick county park and Sedgwick County Extension Arboretum.
The Wichita-Sedgwick County Historical Museum in downtown Wichita occupies the original Wichita city hall, built in 1892. The museum contains artifacts that tell the story of Wichita and Sedgwick County starting from 1865 and continuing to the present day.
Slightly east of downtown, Old Town was transformed in the early 1990s from an old warehouse district to a mixed-zone neighborhood with residential space, nightclubs, restaurants, hotels and museums, including the Museum of World Treasures and railroad oriented Great Plains Transportation Museum.
Moody's Skidrow Beanery, at 625 E. Douglas in what was to become Old Town, was one of the more famous places in Wichita in the 1960s. It was the scene of a nationally followed First Amendment struggle  and was visited by Allen Ginsberg in 1966 (the name had been changed to the Magic Theatre Vortex Art Gallery) where he first read his long poem "Wichita Vortex Sutra."
Wichita is also home to two major shopping malls: Towne East Square and Towne West Square, on opposite ends of town, and each managed by Simon Property Group. Each mall is home to four anchor stores, and has more than 100 tenants apiece. The oldest mall, Wichita Mall, was for many years largely a dead mall, but has since been converted into office space. There are also two large outdoor shopping centers, Bradley Fair on the city's north-east side and NewMarket Square on the city's north-west side, each with over 50 stores spread out on several acres.
In popular culture and the arts
Wichita has developed a positive reputation in U.S. media as an affordable and pleasant place to live. In July 2006, CNN/Money and Money ranked Wichita 9th on their list of the 10 best U.S. big cities in which to live. In 2008, MSN Real Estate ranked Wichita 1st on its list of most affordable cities. Wichita was also named the most "Uniquely American" city by Newsmax magazine in a May 2009 piece written by Peter Greenberg.
Wichita is mentioned in the songs "Wichita Skyline" by Shawn Colvin, "Seven Nation Army" by The White Stripes, and the song, "Captain Bobby Stout" by local musician Jerry Hahn. Allen Ginsberg wrote about a visit to Wichita in his poem Wichita Vortex Sutra, for which Philip Glass subsequently wrote a solo piano piece. Glen Campbell's Wichita Lineman, written by Jimmy Webb, peaked at #1 on Billboard's country singles chart and at #3 on the pop chart in 1968. Ruby Vroom, released by the band Soul Coughing in 1994, contains a song called "True Dreams of Wichita".
The city has been a setting of various works of fiction. The award-winning stage play Hospitality Suite written by Roger Rueff takes place in Wichita as does its 1999 film adaptation, The Big Kahuna. Wichita (1955) and portions of Wyatt Earp (1994), both of which dramatize the life and career of Wyatt Earp, are set in Wichita. The short-lived 1959-1960 television western Wichita Town was set during the city's early years. Other films wholly or partially set in the city include Good Luck, Miss Wyckoff (1979), Planes, Trains and Automobiles (1987), The Ice Harvest (2005), and Knight and Day (2010). Smallville, Clark Kent's childhood as well as his adolescent residence, is a town two hundred miles east of Wichita in the television series Smallville. The city is also the setting of the long-running comic strip Dennis the Menace.
Wichita is home to several professional, semi-professional, non-professional, and collegiate sports teams. Professional teams include the Wichita Thunder ice hockey team, Wichita Force indoor football team, and Wichita Wingnuts baseball team. Defunct professionals teams which used to play in Wichita include the Wichita Aeros and Wichita Wranglers baseball teams and the Wichita Wings indoor soccer team. Semi-pro teams include the Kansas Cougars and Kansas Diamondbacks football teams. Non-professional teams include the Wichita Barbarians rugby union team and the Wichita World 11 cricket team.
Collegiate teams based in the city include the Wichita State University Shockers, Newman University Jets, and the Friends University Falcons. The WSU Shockers are NCAA Division I teams which compete in men's and women's basketball, baseball, volleyball, track and field, tennis, and bowling. The Newman Jets are NCAA Division II teams which compete in baseball, basketball, bowling, cross country, golf, soccer, tennis, wrestling, volleyball, and cheer/dance. The Friends Falcons compete in Region IV of the NAIA in football, volleyball, soccer, cross country, basketball, tennis, track and field, and golf.
Several sports venues are located in and around the city. Intrust Bank Arena, located downtown, is a 15,000-seat multi-purpose arena that is home to the Wichita Thunder and Wichita Force. Lawrence-Dumont Stadium, located just west of downtown, is a medium-sized baseball stadium that has been home to Wichita's various minor-league baseball teams over the years. It is also home of the minor-league National Baseball Congress and the site of the Congress's annual National Tournament. Wichita Ice Arena, also just west of downtown, is a public ice-skating rink used for ice-skating competitions. In addition, Century II has been used for professional wrestling tournaments, sporting-goods exhibitions, and other recreational activity. The WSU campus includes two major venues: Eck Stadium, a medium-sized stadium with a full-sized baseball field that is home to the WSU Shocker baseball team, and Charles Koch Arena, a medium-sized, dome-roofed circular arena with a collegiate basketball court that hosts the WSU Shocker basketball team. Koch Arena is also used extensively for city-wide and regional high school athletic events, concerts and other entertainments. Located just north of the city is 81 Motor Speedway, an oval motor-vehicle racetrack used extensively for a wide range of car, truck and motorcycle races, and other motor sports events. Neighboring Park City is home to Hartman Arena and the Sam Fulco Pavilions, a moderate-capacity low-roofed arena developed for small rodeos, horse shows, livestock competitions, and exhibitions.
Under state statute, Wichita is a city of the first class. Since 1917, it has had a council-manager form of government. The city council consists of seven members popularly elected every four years with staggered terms in office. For representative purposes, the city is divided into six districts with one council member elected from each district. The mayor is the seventh council member, elected at large. The council sets policy for the city, enacts laws and ordinances, levies taxes, approves the city budget, and appoints members to citizen commission and advisory boards. The council meets each Tuesday. The city manager is the city’s chief executive, responsible for administering city operations and personnel, submitting the annual city budget, advising the city council, preparing the council’s agenda, and oversight of non-departmental activities.
The Wichita Police Department, established in 1871, is the city’s law enforcement agency. With over 800 employees, including more than 600 commissioned officers, it is the largest law enforcement agency in Kansas. The Wichita Fire Department, organized in 1886, operates 22 stations throughout the city. Organized into four battalions, it employs over 400 full-time firefighters.
As the county seat, Wichita is the administrative center of Sedgwick County. The county courthouse is located downtown, and most departments of the county government base their operations in the city.
Many departments and agencies of the U.S. Government have facilities in Wichita. The Wichita U.S. Courthouse, located downtown, is one of the three courthouses of the U.S. District Court for the District of Kansas. The U.S. Air Force operates McConnell Air Force Base immediately southeast of the city. The campus of the Robert J. Dole Department of Veterans Affairs Medical and Regional Office Center is located on U.S. 54 in east Wichita. Other agencies, including the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Food and Drug Administration, and Internal Revenue Service among others, have offices in locations around the city.
Wichita lies within Kansas's 4th U.S. Congressional District. For the purposes of representation in the Kansas Legislature, the city is located in the 16th and 25th through 32nd districts of the Kansas Senate and the 81st, 83rd through 101st, 103rd, and 105th districts of the Kansas House of Representatives.
Primary and secondary education
With over 50,000 students, Wichita Public Schools (USD 259) is the largest school district in Kansas. It operates more than 90 schools in the city including 10 high schools, 16 middle schools, 61 elementary schools, and more than a dozen special schools and programs. Outlying portions of Wichita lie within suburban public school districts including Andover (USD 385), Circle (USD 375), Derby (USD 260), Goddard (USD 265), Haysville (USD 261), Maize (USD 266), and Valley Center (USD 262).
There are more than 35 private and parochial schools in Wichita. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Wichita oversees 16 Catholic schools in the city including 14 elementary schools and two high schools, Bishop Carroll Catholic High School and Kapaun Mt. Carmel High School. The Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod operates two Lutheran schools in the city, Bethany Lutheran School (Grades PK-5) and Holy Cross Lutheran School (PK-8). There are also two Seventh-day Adventist schools in Wichita, Three Angels School (K-8) and Wichita Adventist Christian Academy (K-10). Other Christian schools in the city are Bethel Life School (K-8), Calvary Christian School (PK-12), Central Christian Academy (K-8), Sunrise Christian Academy (PK-12), Trinity Academy (9-12), Wichita Friends School (PK-6), and Word of Life Traditional School (K-12). In addition, there is an Islamic school, Anoor School (PK-8), operated by the Islamic Society of Wichita. Non-religious private schools in the city include Wichita Collegiate School and The Independent School as well as three Montessori schools.
Colleges and universities
Three universities have their main campuses in Wichita. The largest is Wichita State University (WSU), a four-year public university which has more than 14,000 students and is the third-largest university in Kansas. WSU's main campus is in northeast Wichita with four satellite campuses located around the metro area. Friends University, a private, non-denominational Christian university, has its main campus in west Wichita as does Newman University, a private Catholic university. In addition, Wichita Area Technical College, a two-year public college, has its main campus and two satellite locations in the city.
Several colleges and universities based outside Wichita operate satellite locations in and around the city. The University of Kansas School of Medicine has one of its three campuses in Wichita. Baker University, Butler Community College, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Southwestern College, Tabor College, Vatterott College, and Webster University have Wichita facilities as do for-profit institutions including Heritage College, ITT Technical Institute, and University of Phoenix.
The Wichita Public Library is the city's library system, presently consisting of a Central Library downtown and nine branch locations in neighborhoods around the city. The library operates several free programs for the public, including special events, technology training classes, and programs specifically for adults, children, and families. As of 2009, its holdings included more than 1.3 million books and 2.2 million items total.
The Wichita Eagle, which began publication in 1872, is the city's major daily newspaper. With a daily circulation of over 67,000 copies, it has the highest circulation of any newspaper published in Kansas. The Wichita Business Journal is a weekly newspaper that covers local business events and developments. Several other newspapers and magazines, including local lifestyle, neighborhood, and demographically-focused publications are also published in the city. These include, among others: The Community Voice, aimed at the city's African American community; the monthly East Wichita News; F5, a weekly alternative newspaper; the Liberty Press, LGBT news; Splurge!, a local fashion and lifestyle magazine; the Sunflower, the WSU student newspaper. The Wichita media market also includes local newspapers in several surrounding suburban communities.
Wichita is the principal city of the Wichita-Hutchinson, Kansas television market which consists of the western two-thirds of the state. All of the market's network affiliates broadcast from Wichita with the ABC, CBS, Fox, and NBC affiliates serving the wider market through state networks of satellite and translator stations. The city also hosts a PBS member station, a Univision affiliate, and several low-power stations. Cable television service for Wichita and the surrounding area is provided by Cox Communications and AT&T.
Wichita suffered severe floods of the Arkansas river in 1877, 1904, 1916, 1923, 1944, 1951 and 1955. In 1944 the city flooded 3 times in 11 days.  As a result of the 1944 flood, the idea for the Wichita-Valley Center Floodway (locally known as the "Big Ditch") was conceived. The project was completed in 1958. The Big Ditch diverts part of the Arkansas River's flow around west-central Wichita, running roughly parallel to the Interstate 235 bypass. A second flood control canal lies between the lanes of Interstate 135, running south through the central part of the city. Chisholm Creek is diverted into this canal for most of its length. The city's flood defenses were tested in the Great Flood of 1993. Flooding that year kept the Big Ditch full for more than a month and caused $6 million dollars of damage to the flood control infrastructure. The damage was not fully repaired until 2007. 
Several federal and state highways pass through Wichita. Interstate 35, as the Kansas Turnpike, enters the city from the south and turns northeast, running along the city's southeastern edge and exiting through the eastern part of the city. Interstate 135 runs generally north-south through the city, its southern terminus lying at its interchange with I-35 in south-central Wichita. Interstate 235, a bypass route, passes through north-central, west, and south-central Wichita, traveling around the central parts of the city. Both its northern and southern termini are interchanges with I-135. U.S. Route 54 and U.S. Route 400 run concurrently through Wichita as Kellogg Avenue, the city's primary east-west artery, with interchanges, from west to east, with I-235, I-135, and I-35. U.S. Route 81, a north-south route, enters Wichita from the south as Broadway, turns east as 47th Street South for approximately half a mile, and then runs concurrently north with I-135 through the rest of the city. K-96, an east-west route, enters the city from the northwest, runs concurrently with I-235 through north-central Wichita, turns south for approximately a mile, running concurrently with I-135 before splitting off to the east and traveling around northeast Wichita, ultimately terminating at an interchange with U.S. 54/U.S. 400 in the eastern part of the city. K-254 begins at I-235's interchange with I-135 in north-central Wichita and exits the city to the northeast. K-15, a north-south route, enters the city from the south and joins I-135 and U.S. 81 in south-central Wichita, running concurrently with them through the rest of the city. K-42 enters the city from the southwest and terminates at its interchange with U.S. 54/U.S. 400 in west-central Wichita.
Wichita Transit operates 53 buses on 18 fixed bus routes within the city. The organization reports over 2 million trips per year (5,400 trips per day) on its fixed routes. Wichita Transit also operates a demand response paratransit service with 320,800 passenger trips annually. A 2005 study ranked Wichita near the bottom of the fifty largest American cities in terms of percentage of commuters using public transit. Only 0.5% used it to get to or from work. Greyhound Lines provides intercity bus service with a station in Wichita.
The Wichita Airport Authority manages the city's two main public airports, Wichita Mid-Continent Airport and Colonel James Jabara Airport. Located in the western part of the city, Mid-Continent Airport is the city's primary airport as well as the largest airport in the state of Kansas. Five commercial airlines (Allegiant, American, Delta, Southwest & United) serve Mid-Continent with non-stop flights to several U.S. airline hubs. Wichita Transit provides hourly daytime bus service to and from the airport six days a week. Jabara Airport is a general aviation facility located on the city's northeast side. In addition, there are several privately owned airports located throughout the city. Cessna Aircraft Field and Beech Factory Airport, operated by manufacturers Cessna and Beechcraft, respectively, lie in east Wichita. Two smaller airports, Riverside Airport and Westport Airport, are located in west Wichita.
Two Class I railroads, BNSF Railway and Union Pacific Railroad (UP), have lines which pass through Wichita. UP's OKT Line runs generally north-south through the city; north of downtown, the line consists of trackage leased to BNSF. An additional UP line enters the city from the northeast and terminates downtown. BNSF's main line through the city enters from the north, passes through downtown, and exits to the southeast, paralleling highway K-15. The Wichita Terminal Association, a joint operation between BNSF and UP, provides switching service on three miles (5 km) of track downtown. In addition, two lines of the Kansas and Oklahoma Railroad enter the city, one from the northwest and the other from the southwest, both terminating at their junction in west-central Wichita.
Wichita has not had passenger rail service since 1979. The nearest Amtrak station is in Newton 25 miles (40 km) north, offering service on the Southwest Chief line between Los Angeles and Chicago. Since 2008, however, Amtrak and the Kansas Department of Transportation have been studying the feasibility of restoring service via route options between Oklahoma City and Newton or Kansas City, Missouri.
A number of famous actors are from Wichita including Emmy and a Golden Globe winning actress Kirstie Alley, known for her role in the TV show Cheers, was born in Wichita and lives in the city part-time. Actor Don Johnson of Miami Vice and Nash Bridges along with various other television and movie roles, lived in Wichita throughout most of his childhood . Oscar winning actress and star of Gone with the Wind, Hattie McDaniel was born in Wichita.
Wyatt Earp served as a lawman in several Western frontier towns, including Wichita. He is best known for his part in the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral and as one of the Old West's "toughest and deadliest gunmen of his day."
Athletes including Pro Football Hall of Fame running backs Gale Sayers and Barry Sanders, Olympic athlete and Congressman Jim Ryun, Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Famer Lynette Woodard, and UFC flyweight fighter Tim Elliott were all born in Wichita.
Businessmen Charles and David Koch (Koch Industries), Dan and Frank Carney (Pizza Hut), Clyde Cessna (Cessna Aircraft), Walter Herschel Beech (Beech Aircraft Company), Bill Lear (Lear Jet), and businesswoman Olive Ann Beech (Beech Aircraft Company) were all born in or lived in Wichita.
American artist Bessie Callender, known for her sculptures of animals and her direct carving technique, was born in the Wichita area. She developed her interest in animals while growing up on a farm near Wichita.
Dennis Rader, a serial killer known as "BTK" (bind, torture, kill), went to high school and college in Wichita and committed his murders in Wichita.
- Official records for Wichita have been kept at various locations in and around the city from July 1888 to November 1953 and at the Mid-Continent Airport since December 1953. For more information, see Threadex
- Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) details for Wichita, Kansas; United States Geological Survey (USGS); October 13, 1978.
- "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-07-06.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2014-12-07.
- "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2014-08-18.
- United States Postal Service (2012). "USPS - Look Up a ZIP Code". Retrieved 2012-02-15.
- Wichita. CollinsDictionary.com. Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 11th Edition. Retrieved October 21, 2012.
- "Kansas: 2000 Population and Housing Unit Counts". United States Census Bureau. July 2003. p. 46. Retrieved 2011-01-20.
- "Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas". Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2014-08-18.
- Miner, Prof. Craig (Wichita State Univ. Dept. of History), Wichita: The Magic City, Wichita Historical Museum Assn., Wichita, KS, 1988
- Howell, Angela and Peg Vines, The Insider's Guide to Wichita, Wichita Eagle & Beacon Publishing, Wichita, KS, 1995
- McCoy, Daniel (interview with Beechcraft CEO Bill Boisture), "Back to Beechcraft," Wichita Business Journal, Feb. 22, 2013
- Harris, Richard, "The Air Capital Story: Early General Aviation & Its Manufacturers", reprinted from In Flight USA magazine on author's own website, 2002/2003
- Harris, Richard, (Chairman, Kansas Aviation Centennial; Kansas Aviation History Speaker, Kansas Humanities Council; Amer. Av. Historical Soc.), "Kansas Aviation History: The Long Story", 2011, Kansas Aviation Centennial website
- "Highest Circulation Kansas Newspapers". Mondo Times. Retrieved 2013-07-28.
- "TV Market Maps - Kansas". EchoStar Knowledge Base. Retrieved 2013-07-28.
- History In Place; American Bungalow magazine; Spring 2009.
- Grove Park Archeological Site
- [dead link]
- Route of the Chisholm cattle trail in Kansas; Kansas Historical Society, 1960s.
- Smith, Jessica (2013). "Morality and Money: A Look at how the Respectable Community Battled the Sporting Community over Prostitution in Kansas Cowtowns, 1867-1885". Kansas State University.
- Price, Jay M. (2005). El Dorado : legacy of an oil boom. Charleston, SC: Arcadia. ISBN 978-0738539713.
- Price, Jay M. (2005). El Dorado : legacy of an oil boom. Charleston, SC: Arcadia. ISBN 978-0738539713.
- "Archibald Leon "Al" Derby". Find A Grave. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
- "Tihen Notes Subject Search K-T Oil Corporation". Wichita State University Libraries’ Department Of Special Collections. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
- Pipe Line News (Oildom Publishing Company). Vol.27: p.77. 1955. Missing or empty
- Texas Monthly (Emmis Communications). Vol 19 No. 4: p.159. April 1991. ISSN 0148-7736. Missing or empty
- "Tihen Notes Subject Search Vickers,vickridge". Wichita State University Libraries’ Department Of Special Collections. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
- "Petroleum Refining: A 125 Year Kansas Legacy". Kansas Department of Health and Environment. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
- "Refinery demolition to get under way". Wichita Business Journal. 29 November 2004.
- Memorial Tributes: National Academy of Engineering, Volume 2. National Academy of Engineering. 1984. p. 148. ISBN 0-309-03482-5. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
- Dick Dilsaver (18 November 1967). "Fred Koch, Industrialist, Dies in Utah". The Wichita Beacon.
- Continetti, Matthew (April 4, 2011). "The Paranoid Style in Liberal Politics". The Weekly Standard.
- Bissionette, Bruce, The Wichita 4: Cessna, Moellendick, Beech & Stearman, (from interviews with Matty Laird, Lloyd Stearman, Olive Ann Beech, Dwayne Wallace, Rawdon, Burnham, and other principals), Aviation Heritage Books, Destin, FL, 1999.
- Rowe, Frank J. (aviation engineering executive) & Prof. Craig. Miner (Wichita State Univ. Dept. of History). Borne on the South Wind: A Century of Kansas Aviation, Wichita Eagle & Beacon Publishing Co., Wichita. 1994 (the standard reference work on Kansas aviation history
- Phillips, Edward H., Travel Air: Wings over the Prairie,' revised ed ., Flying Books International, 1982/1994, Eagan MN (coverage of Laird/Swallow, Travel Air and early careers of Cessna, Stearman & Beech)
- Aeronautical Yearbook, 1929, Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce
- Harris, Richard, "About Monocoupe Production Numbers," sidebar to "[Monocoupe: Speed for the Common Man], in AAHS Journal, Vol. 56, No. 4 - Winter 2011, American Aviation Historical Society, Huntington Beach, Calif.
- "History of the Building". Kansas Aviation Museum. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
- Harris, Richard, "The Hawker-Beechcraft Story: A Quick History of HBC" from the Aviation Answer-Man website, 2013
- "BOEING TO CLOSE WICHITA PLANT BY 2013, Boeing’s Wichita history dates to 1927". The Wichita Eagle. 2012-01-05. Retrieved 2012-09-14.
- Herman, Arthur. Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II, pp. 297-300, 307-8, 314-318, 321, Random House, New York, NY, 2012. ISBN 978-1-4000-6964-4.
- Cotter, Cornelius P., Jet Tanker Crash, 1968, Univ. of Kansas Press, Lawrence, KS.
- Roney, Tiffany, "Piatt St. crash remembered" Wichita Eagle newspaper, Jan. 15, 2011.
- Leiker, Amy Renee, "New book to chronicle 1965 tanker crash near 21st and Piatt," Wichita Eagle newspaper, Jan. 12, 2013.
- Carter, David W., Mayday Over Wichita, book (Facebook promotional web page) as downloaded May 18, 2013.
- "Building a new Boeing". The Economist. 10 August 2000.
- Sulzberger, A.G. "Boeing Departure Shakes Wichita’s Identity as Airplane Capital." New York Times, January 18, 2012.
- "Wichita, Kansas (KS) History: Kansas Heritage Group". www.kansastowns.us. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
- Hevesi, Dennis. "Ronald Walters, Rights Leader and Scholar, Dies at 72", The New York Times, September 14, 2010.
- "Bronze Sculpture of Lunch Counter for Downtown Park is Tribute to Civil Rights Activists", The Wichita Eagle, February 4, 1998. Accessed September 15, 2010.
- Heck, J.  "Wichita Business Journal", July 1, 2011.
- "A Double Life: Dennis Rader lived quietly while killing 10" (PDF). The Wichita Eagle. Retrieved July 11, 2014.
- Douglas, John; Dodd, Johnny (November 3, 2008). Inside the Mind of BTK: The True Story Behind the Thirty-Year Hunt for the Notorious Wichita Serial Killer. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-43768-1. Retrieved July 11, 2014.
- "Wichita Sniper Kills Three Men, Wounds Six". Spokane Daily Chronicle. 12 August 1976. p. p. 11.
- "2003-2004 Official Transportation Map". Kansas Department of Transportation. 2003. Retrieved 2011-01-01.
- "City Distance Tool". Geobytes. Retrieved 2011-01-01.
- "Ecoregions of Nebraska and Kansas". Environmental Protection Agency. 2001. Retrieved 2011-01-01.
- "Arkansas River and Wellington-McPherson Lowlands - Introduction". Kansas Geological Survey. 2005-05-03. Retrieved 2011-01-01.
- "Sedgwick County Geohydrology - Geography". Kansas Geological Survey. Dec 1965. Retrieved 2011-01-01.
- "City of Wichita". Kansas Department of Transportation. June 2010. Retrieved 2011-01-01.
- "General Highway Map - Sedgwick County, Kansas". Kansas Department of Transportation. June 2009. Retrieved 2011-01-01.
- Peel, M. C.; Finlayson, B. L.; McMahon, T. A. (2007-03-01). "Updated Köppen-Geiger climate classification map". Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions) (4): 439–473. Retrieved 2012-01-25.
- "Kansas Tornado History - Historical Tornado Facts". Tornadochaser.com. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
- 1991 Wichita Tornado Photo Collection
- 1965 Wichita Tornado Photo Collection
- "Historical Weather for Wichita, Kansas, United States of America". Weatherbase. Retrieved 2012-01-25.
- "Average weather for Wichita, KS". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 2012-01-25.
- "NOWData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Weather Service Forecast Office - Wichita, KS. Retrieved 2012-01-25.
- "Station Name: KS WICHITA". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2013-03-10.
- "WMO Climate Normals for WICHITA/MID-CONTINENT ARPT KS 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-11.
- City of Wichita - Park and Recreation Parks, Greenways, and Recreation Corridors
- City of Wichita - Historic Preservation Main
- United States Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved August 18, 2014.
- "American FactFinder". Factfinder2.census.gov. Retrieved 2013-07-15.
- "American FactFinder 2". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-11-12.
- "OMB Bulletin No. 10-02". Office of Management and Budget. 2009-12-01. p. 59. Retrieved 2011-01-22.
- "OMB Bulletin No. 10-02". Office of Management and Budget. 2009-12-01. p. 117. Retrieved 2011-01-22.
- Thomas, G. Scott (2011). "Metro Area Populations as of July 2011: 2011 - United States -- Metropolitan Statistical Area". 2011 American City Business Journals, Inc. (American City Business Journals, Inc.). Retrieved 2011-04-30.
- "Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013". 2013 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. August 18, 2014. Retrieved August 18, 2014.
- "Population and Housing Occupancy Status: 2010 - United States -- Combined Statistical Area". 2010 Census National Summary File of Redistricting Data. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. 2010. Retrieved 2011-04-30.
- "Population and Housing Occupancy Status: 2010 - State -- County / County Equivalent". 2010 Census Redistricting Data (Public Law 94-171) Summary File. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-04-30.
- "Hawker Beechcraft secures $40 million incentive package to remain in Wichita". Retrieved 2011-01-02.
- "Wichita Chamber of Commerce". Wichitakansas.org. Retrieved 2013-07-15.
- "Hospital ready for visitors", Wichita Eagle and Kansas.com, July 18, 2010.
- "Forbes article". Forbes.
- "uipl_3002c2a3.html." United States Department of Labor. Retrieved on May 26, 2009.
- "Wichita, Kansas". City-Data.com. Retrieved 2015-03-11.
- Penner, Marci, editor, and Richard Harris, contributor, in "Wichita Aviation Industry" in "8 Wonders of Kansas Commerce" on the Kansas Sampler website of the Kansas Sampler Foundation, sponsored by the Kansas Humanities Council for the Kansas 150 Sesquicentennial, 2010-2011.
- General Aviation Manufacturers Association (GAMA), GAMA Statistical Databook & Industry Outlook 2007, Washington, D.C.GAMA (General Aviation Manufacturers Association), GAMA Statistical Databook & Industry Outlook 2010, Washington, D.C. (which includes historical data for previous 10 years)
- "Boeing to close Wichita Facility by end of 2013". Boeing to close Wichita Facility by end of 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
- River Festival estimates record attendance - Wichita Business Journal
- "Wichita Public Library - Programs - 28th Annual Academy Awards Shorts, website of the Wichita Public Library, City of Wichita, Wichita, Kansas, 03/03/2014, downloaded 09/22/2014
- "26th Annual Academy Awards Shorts," press release, Wichita Public Library, as posted on [OldtownWichita.com], Wichita, Kansas, Jan.24, 2012, downloaded Sept.22, 2014
- Pocowatchit, Rod "Wichita Public Library to present Oscar-nominated short films," Wichita Eagle, Wichita, Kansas 02/17/2012, Updated: 02/17/2012, downloaded 09/22/2014
- Pocowatchit, Rod "Wichita Public Library Presents: Oscar Nominated Shorts 2014" press release, The Orpheum Theatre, Wichita, Kansas 03/01/2014, downloaded 09/22/2014
- Horn, John, Associated Press, "Obscure Oscar Nominated Films Face Battle," as published in the The Sunday Gazette, Mar 12, 1998, Schenectady, New York, photocopied by Google News Archive Search, downloaded 09/22/2014
- Jackson, Susan M., "Academy Award director to speak in Wichita," The Kansan, Salina, Kansas, March 26, 2010, downloaded Sept. 22, 2014
- Tallgrass Film [Search]
- | Wichita Flight Festival official website, visited 2014-09-22
- Brisbin, Airman 1st Class Katrina M., | "'Wings Over McConnell' showcases Airmen," press release, Public Affairs Office, 22nd Air Refueling Wing, U.S. Air Force, McConnell Air Force Base, Wichita, KS, Posted 10/2/2012, Updated 10/3/2012
- "INTRUST Bank Arena". INTRUST Bank Arena. Retrieved 2013-07-15.
- Intrust Bank Arena Announces Grand Opening Activities
- "Wichita Art Museum Visitor Information". Wichitaartmuseum.org. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
- "Wichita Kansas Attractions". Wichitalinks.com. Retrieved 2009-09-12.
- Keith Stokes. "Coleman Factory Outlet and Museum - Wichita, Kansas". Kansastravel.org. Retrieved 2013-07-15.
- Wilson, Bill. "IMAX screen goes up with help from lots of volunteers | Wichita Eagle". Kansas.com. Retrieved 2013-07-15.
- "Moody's Skid Row Beanery by Pat O'Connor: 1960s Wichita, KS Beatniks, Hoboes: Moody Connell Beats In Kansas". Vlib.us. Retrieved 2013-07-15.
- Rengers, Carrie (2009-06-16). "Office This reaches 75 percent occupancy with two new tenants | Have You Heard? | Wichita Eagle Blogs". Retrieved 2013-07-15.
- "Best Places to Live 2006". Money Magazine. 2006. Retrieved 2008-08-05.
- "2008 MSN Real Estate best bargain markets". MSN Real Estate. 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-26.
- Greenberg, Peter. "Newsmax Magazine Rates the Top 25 Most Uniquely American Cities And Towns". Newsmax. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- Swanbeck, John (director) (1999). The Big Kahuna (Film). U.S.A.: Lions Gate Films.
- Tourneur, Jacques (director) (1955). Wichita (Film). U.S.A.: Allied Artists Pictures Corporation.
- Kasdan, Lawrence (director) (1994). Wyatt Earp (Film). U.S.A.: Warner Bros.
- "Wichita Town". IMDb. Retrieved 2013-10-19.
- Chomsky, Marvin J. (director) (1979). Good Luck, Miss Wyckoff (Film). U.S.A.: Bel Air/Gradison Productions.
- Hughes, John (director) (1987). Planes, Trains & Automobiles (Film). U.S.A.: Paramount Pictures.
- Ramis, Harold (director) (2005). The Ice Harvest (Film). U.S.A.: Focus Features.
- Knight and Day at AllMovie
- "Smallville, Kansas". Cloisworld.net. Retrieved 2013-09-30.
- AP (2001-06-02). "'Dennis the Menace' creator dies at 81; strip to continue". The Topeka Capital-Journal. Retrieved 2013-10-19.
- "Wichita". Directory of Kansas Public Officials. The League of Kansas Municipalities. Retrieved 2012-03-14.
- "City Manager". City of Wichita. Retrieved 2011-04-30.
- "City Council". City of Wichita. Retrieved 2011-04-30.
- "History of the Wichita Police Department". City of Wichita. Retrieved 2011-04-30.
- "-Departmental Information". City of Wichita. Retrieved 2011-04-30.
- "About Us [Wichita Fire Department]". City of Wichita, Kansas. 2014-01-06.
- "Sedgwick County, Kansas Government". Sedgwick County, Kansas. Retrieved 2012-07-30.
- "Courthouse Information". U.S. District Court for the District of Kansas. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
- "FAQ Topic - Newcomers". U.S. Air Force. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
- "Locations - Robert J. Dole Department of Veterans Affairs Medical and Regional Office Center". U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
- "Kansas City Division - Territory/Jurisdiction". Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
- "FDA Southwest Regional/District Offices". U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
- "Contact My Local Office in Kansas". Internal Revenue Service. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
- "2012-13 Demographic Snapshot". Wichita Public Schools. 2012-10-01. Retrieved 2013-06-12.
- "Directory of Buildings". Wichita Public Schools. Retrieved 2011-02-04.
- "South Central Kansas School Districts". ALTEC at University of Kansas. 2003. Retrieved 2011-02-04.
- "Education". Wichita Metro Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved 2011-02-04.
- "2010-2011 School Directory". Roman Catholic Diocese of Wichita. Retrieved 2011-02-04.
- "Classes". Bethany Lutheran School. Retrieved 2011-02-04.
- "Welcome to Holy Cross Lutheran School". Holy Cross Lutheran School. Retrieved 2011-02-04.
- "Three Angels School". Three Angels Seventh-day Adventist Church. Retrieved 2011-02-04.
- "Wichita Adventist Christian Academy". Wichita Adventist Christian Academy. Retrieved 2011-02-04.
- "Private Schools". Wichta Metro Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved 2011-02-04.
- "Wichita State University". College Portraits of Undergraduate Education. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- "College Comparison Tool". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- "Satellite Campuses". Wichita State University. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- "Friends Fact Sheet". Friends University. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- "2010-11 Admission Brochure". Newman University. p. 5. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- "Wichita Area Technical College". College Navigator. National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- "Campuses". Wichita Area Technical College. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- "School of Medicine". KU Medical Center. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- "Education". Wichita Metro Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- "McConnell Campus". Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- "Heritage College-Wichita". College Navigator. National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- "ITT Technical Institute-Wichita". College Navigator. National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
- "Library locations". Wichita Public Library. Retrieved 2011-02-12.
- "Free programs". Wichita Public Library. 2011-01-10. Retrieved 2011-02-12.
- "Wichita Public Library - 2009 Annual Report". Wichita Public Library. p. 26. Retrieved 2011-02-12.
- "Wichita Eagle". Mondo Times. Retrieved 2011-01-15.
- "Wichita Business Journal". Mondo Times. Retrieved 2011-01-15.
- "Wichita Kansas Newspapers". Mondo Newspapers. Retrieved 2014-10-24.
- "Voice It Wichita.com". TCV Publishing. Retrieved 2014-10-24.
- "East Wichita News". Clifton Square. Retrieved 2011-01-15.
- "F5". F5. Retrieved 2014-10-24.
- "Liberty Press". Mondo Times. Retrieved 2011-01-15.
- "Backstory". SplurgeMag. Retrieved 2014-10-24.
- "About Us". The Sunflower. 2008-10-13. Retrieved 2011-01-15.
- "2009 Arbitron Radio Metro Map". Arbitron. Retrieved 2012-03-14.
- "Radio Stations in Wichita, Kansas". Radio-Locator. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "Contact Us". KAKE. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "About Us - kwch.com". KWCH. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "About KSCW". KSCW-DT. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "Contact Us - Fox Kansas". KSAS. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "Contact Us - myTVwichita". KMTW. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "Contact Us - KSN TV". KSN. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "Contact Us". KPTS. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "Wichita-Hutchinson Television Stations". Station Index. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "Telephone & Utilities". Wichita Metro Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- Tanner, Beccy (11 August 2013). "Ad Astra: Idea for Big Ditch grew after Wichita had sustained series of major floods". http://www.kansas.com. The Wichita Eagle. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
- "Storm Water Management". City of Wichita. Retrieved 2011-01-01.
- "Wichita and Valley Center Local Protection Project". United States Army Corps of Engineers. Retrieved 2011-01-01.
- Associated Press. "Flood-control ditch needs $6M in repairs". http://www2.ljworld.com. Lawrence Journal World. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
- "Wichita Transit". City of Wichita. Retrieved 2011-01-08.
- Christie, Les (2007-06-13). "New Yorkers are top transit users". CNNmoney.com. Retrieved 2007-06-29.
- "Locations : States : Kansas". Greyhound Lines. Retrieved 2011-01-08.
- . Walk Score. 2014 City and Neighborhood Rankings https://www.walkscore.com/KS/Wichita City and Neighborhood Rankings. Retrieved Feb 16, 2015. Missing or empty
- "Mid-Continent Airport History". Wichita Airport Authority. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "Airline Information". Wichita Airport Authority. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "Wichita Transit - Westside Connectior". City of Wichita. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "KAAO - Colonel James Jabara Airport". AirNav.com. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "KCEA - Cessna Aircraft Field Airport". AirNav.com. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "KBEC - Beech Factory Airport". AirNav.com. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "K32 - Riverside Airport". AirNav.com. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "71K - Westport Airport". AirNav.com. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "Getting Around the Metro Area". Wichita Metro Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved 2010-01-09.
- "UPRR Common Line Names". Union Pacific Railroad. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "Kansas Operating Division". BNSF Railway. 2009-04-01. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "Rail Plan 2005-2006". Kansas Department of Transportation. pp. 66–67. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- Wistrom, Brent (2010-01-11). "Proposed Amtrak line would mean millions for Wichita". USA Today. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "Passenger Rail". Kansas Department of Transportation. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- Hertneky, Dana (2010-09-02). "Kansas rail service expansion still on track". KSN. Retrieved 2011-01-09.
- "Kirstie Alley". Soylent Communications. Retrieved 2010-11-09.
- Cummins, Ann (April 15, 2010). "Wyatt Earp's Tombstone Vendetta". KNAU Public Radio. Retrieved 28 February 2012.
- "Bessie Stough Callender". Smithsonian American Art Museum.
- "Jumelages et Relations Internationales - Avignon". Avignon.fr (in French). Retrieved 2013-07-13.
- "Atlas français de la coopération décentralisée et des autres actions extérieures". Ministère des affaires étrangères (in French). Retrieved 2013-07-13.
- Wichita : Illustrated History 1868 to 1880; Eunice S. Chapter; 52 pages; 1914. (Download 3MB PDF eBook)
- History of Wichita and Sedgwick County Kansas : Past and present, including an account of the cities, towns, and villages of the county; 2 Volumes; O.H. Bentley; C.F. Cooper & Co; 454 / 479 pages; 1910. (Volume1 - Download 20MB PDF eBook),(Volume2 - Download 31MB PDF eBook)
- History of the State of Kansas; William G. Cutler; A.T. Andreas Publisher; 1883. (Online HTML eBook)
- Kansas : A Cyclopedia of State History, Embracing Events, Institutions, Industries, Counties, Cities, Towns, Prominent Persons, Etc; 3 Volumes; Frank W. Blackmar; Standard Publishing Co; 944 / 955 / 824 pages; 1912. (Volume1 - Download 54MB PDF eBook),(Volume2 - Download 53MB PDF eBook), (Volume3 - Download 33MB PDF eBook)
Text is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.
- Wichita, Kansas English (Simple version) Simple English
- Wichita (Kansas) Spanish español
- Wichita French français
- Wichita (Kansas) German Deutsch
- Wichita Italian italiano
- Уичито Russian русский
- ויצ'יטה Hebrew עברית
- ويتشيتا (كانساس) Arabic العربية
- Wichita, Kansas Afrikaans Afrikaans
- ويتشيتا (كانساس) Arabic العربية
- Wichita Aragonese aragonés
- Ուիչիտո Armenian Հայերեն
- Wichita Asturian asturianu
- Viçita Azerbaijani azərbaycanca
- Wichita Basque euskara
- Горад Уічыта Belarussian беларуская
- Ўічыта Belarussian Taraškievica беларуская (тарашкевіца)
- Wichita (Kansas) Breton brezhoneg
- Уичита Bulgarian български
- Wichita (Kansas) Catalan; Valencian català
- 威奇托 (堪萨斯州) Chinese 中文
- Wichita, Kansas Cornish kernowek
- Wichita Czech česky
- Wichita Danish dansk
- Wichita (Kansas) Dutch Nederlands
- Wichita, Kansas English (Simple version) Simple English
- Wichita (Kansaso) Esperanto Esperanto
- Wichita Estonian eesti
- Wichita Faroese føroyskt
- Wichita Finnish suomi
- Wichita French français
- Wichita, Kansas Gaelic; Scottish Gaelic Gàidhlig
- Wichita Galician galego
- უიჩიტო Georgian ქართული
- Wichita (Kansas) German Deutsch
- Ουιτσίτα (Κάνσας) Greek Ελληνικά
- Wichita, Kansas Haitian; Haitian Creole Kreyòl ayisyen
- ויצ'יטה Hebrew עברית
- Wichita Hungarian magyar
- Wichita, Kansas Ido Ido
- Wichita, Kansas Indonesian Bahasa Indonesia
- Wichita, Kansas Interlingua interlingua
- Wichita Interlingue; Occidental Interlingue
- Wichita, Kansas Irish Gaeilge
- Wichita Italian italiano
- ウィチタ Japanese 日本語
- 위치토 (캔자스 주) Korean 한국어
- Vičita Latvian latviešu
- Vičita Lithuanian lietuvių
- Вичита (Канзас) Macedonian македонски
- Wichita, Kansas Malagasy Malagasy
- Wichita, Kansas Manx Gaelg
- विचिटा Marathi मराठी
- Wichita, Kansas Min Nan Chinese Bân-lâm-gú
- Wichita Norwegian (Bokmål) norsk (bokmål)
- Wichita Norwegian (Nynorsk) norsk (nynorsk)
- Wichita, Kansas Pampanga Kapampangan
- ویچیتا، کانزاس Persian فارسی
- Wichita Polish polski
- Wichita (Kansas) Portuguese português
- Wichita, Kansas Romanian română
- Уичито Russian русский
- Wichita Sardinian sardu
- Вичита Serbian српски / srpski
- Wichita, Kansas Serbo-Croatian srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски
- Wichita Slovak slovenčina
- Wichita, Kansas Slovenian slovenščina
- Wichita (Kansas) Spanish español
- Wichita, Kansas Swahili Kiswahili
- Wichita, Kansas Swedish svenska
- Wichita, Kansas Tagalog Tagalog
- วิชิทอ Thai ไทย
- Wichita, Kansas Turkish Türkçe
- Вічіта Ukranian українська
- Wichita Upper Sorbian hornjoserbsce
- Wichita (Kansas) Uzbek oʻzbekcha
- Wichita, Kansas Vietnamese Tiếng Việt
- Wichita Volapük Volapük
- Wichita, Kansas Waray Winaray
- Wichita, Kansas Welsh Cymraeg
- Wichita (Kansas) Western Frisian Frysk
- Уичита Westrn Mari кырык мары
- Wichita Yoruba Yorùbá