The Toyota GR engine family is an open-deck, V6 piston engine series. The GR series has a 60° die-cast aluminum block and aluminum DOHC cylinder heads. This engine series also features 4 valves per cylinder, forged steel connecting rods, one-piece cast camshafts, and a cast aluminum lower intake manifold. Some variants use multi-port fuel injection, some have D4 direct injection, and others have a combination of direct injection and multi-port fuel injection or D4-S.
Note: Power ratings have changed due to SAE measurement changes for 2006 model year vehicles. Toyota rates engines on 87 pump octane, Lexus rates engines on 91 pump octane.
The 1GR-FE is the 4.0 L (3956 cc) version, designed for longitudinal mounting in RWD and 4WD pickup applications. It has a 94 mm bore and a stroke of 95 mm. Output is 236 hp (176 kW) at 5200 rpm with 266 lb·ft (361 N·m) of torque at 4000 rpm on 87 octane, and 239 hp (178 kW) at 5200 rpm with 278 lb·ft (377 N·m) at 3700 rpm on 91 octane. This engine features Toyota's VVT-i, variable valve timing system on the intake cam and a compression ratio of 10.0:1. Service weight, including fluids, is 166 kg (366 lb).
An updated version of this engine features Dual VVT-i, increasing output to 254 hp (189 kW) and 270 lb·ft (366 N·m) on 87 octane and 285 hp (213 kW) and 289 lb·ft (392 N·m) on 91 octane. Inside, the 1GR uses a "taper-squish" combustion chamber design with matching pistons to improve anti-knocking and engine performance, while also improving intake and fuel efficiency. Toyota adopted a siamese-type intake port, which reduces the surface area of the port walls and prevents fuel from adhering to such walls. This engine has special cast-iron cylinder liners cast into the block, which are a spiny type to improve adhesion between the liner and cylinder block. With these special thin liners it is impossible to bore the block. In the event of cylinder wall damage (scoring, deep protrusions, etc.), the entire cylinder block must be replaced. For increased block rigidity, the 1GR also receives a high temperature plastic insulator/protector, which fills the empty space between the outer portion of the cylinders and block material common to open deck engines. For increased cooling efficiency, the 1GR employs water passages between the bores of the engine. There are two such passages for each bank for a total of four. This reduces cylinder hot-spotting and keeps combustion chamber temperatures more uniform.
A bolt-on TRD supercharger kit is available on the Tacoma and FJ Cruiser.
Applications with VVT-i (calendar years):
- 2002-2009 Toyota 4Runner / Hilux Surf (GRN210/215)
- 2007-2011 Toyota Land Cruiser (GRJ200)
- 2002-2009 Toyota Land Cruiser Prado (GRJ120/121/125)
- 2004–present Toyota Tacoma (GRN225/245/250/265/270)
- 2005 Toyota Hilux (GGN10/20)
- 2005-2006 Toyota Tundra (GSK30)
- 2006-2009 Toyota Tundra (GSK50/51)
- 2005–present Toyota Fortuner (GGN50/60)
- 2006-2009 Toyota FJ Cruiser (GSJ10/15)
Applications with Dual VVT-i (calendar years):
The 2GR-FE is a 3.5 L (3456 cc) version for transverse FWD, 4WD, or AWD mounting. Bore remains at 94 mm but stroke is reduced to 83 mm. Reported output varies depending on the vehicle application, but is approximately 266 hp (198 kW) to 280 hp (209 kW) at 6200 rpm with 245 lb·ft (332 N·m) to 260 lb·ft (353 N·m) of torque at 4700 rpm on 87 octane (R+M/2). This version features Toyota's Dual VVT-i, variable valve timing on both the intake and exhaust cams. The cams are driven using a timing chain.
Valves are driven by roller-follower rocker arms with low friction roller bearings, and a unique, concave cam lobe design to increase valve lift over the traditional shimless lifter type system of the 1GR-FE. This increases overall cylinder head height to accommodate the slightly taller roller rocker system. Moreover, the cylinder head is segmented into 3 parts: valve cover, camshaft sub-assembly housing, and cylinder head sub-assembly. As such, this valvetrain is used across all other GR engines with Dual VVT-i. Its service weight is 163 kg.
- 2005–2012 Toyota Avalon (GSX30)
- 2012–present Toyota Avalon (GSX40)
- 2006–2012 Toyota Aurion (GSV40)
- 2005–2012 Toyota RAV4/Vanguard (GSA33/38)
- 2006–present Toyota Estima/Previa/Tarago (GSR50/55)
- 2006–2010 Toyota Sienna (GSL20/23/25)
- 2006–2011 Toyota Camry (GSV40)
- 2011–present Toyota Camry (GSV50)
- 2006–2012 Lexus ES 350 (GSV40)
- 2007–2009 Lexus RX 350/Toyota Harrier (GSU30/31/35/36)
- 2009–present Lexus RX 350 (GGL10/15/16)
- 2007–2014 Toyota Highlander/Kluger (GSU40/45)
- 2007 Toyota Blade (GRE156)
- 2007 Toyota Mark X Zio (GGA10)
- 2008–present Toyota Alphard/Vellfire (GGH20/25)
- 2009–present Toyota Venza (GGV10/15)
- 2009-present Lotus Evora (280ps & 350Nm using Lotus engine management, Sport Pack package redline increased to 7000rpm)
- 2006–present Toyota Sienna (GSL20/30)
- Toyota Corolla (E140/E150) (for Super GT use)
- Lotus Evora GTE (modified 4 litre version with 470 hp N/A for race use in the ALMS and at the 24 Hours of Le Mans)
The 2GR-FSE is a 3.5L engine used in the Lexus IS, GS 350, Mark X and Crown incorporate Toyota's latest D4-S twin injection fuel system. This system combines direct injection (949cc/min injectors) with traditional port injection (298cc/min injectors). Direct injection lowers the tendency to knock (detonation) and increases performance by reducing the charge intake temperature. Traditionally, direct injection engines require an in-engine mechanism such as swirl ports or specific piston crown shapes to increase air turbulence in the engine. These are in place to help achieve a homogeneous air-fuel mixture inside the cylinder at low RPM and high load, but these mechanisms inhibit performance at higher engine speeds. In the 2GR-FSE, port injection is used considerably to achieve the correct mixture without having in-engine restrictions, meaning the engine achieves specific power near the top of all naturally aspirated production gasoline engines in the world (67kW/L, 235kW in the Mark X). Toyota also developed a new type of injector for this engine. The dual fan spray pattern of the direct injectors is perpendicular to the piston travel with wide dispersion in the cylinder, which aids air and fuel mixture and therefore increases power and efficiency. The port injectors not only help improve the power and efficiency but they also help improve emissions, especially in the first 20 seconds after start-up (when the catalytic converter is in its warm-up stage). Development of V-6 3.5-liter Engine Adopting New Direct Injection System.
The 2GR-FSE engine is rated at 309 PS (227 kW; 305 hp) at 6,400 RPM and 38.4 kg·m (377 N·m; 278 lb·ft) at 4,800 RPM.
The engine's service weight is 174 kg.
- 2006 Toyota Crown Athlete (GRS184, 315 PS (232 kW; 311 hp) and 38.4 kg·m (377 N·m; 278 lb·ft) at 4,800 RPM)
- 2006 Lexus GS 350 (GRS191/196)
- 2006 Lexus GS 450h (GWS191)
- 2006 Lexus IS 350 & IS 350 C (GSE21)
- 2008 Toyota Crown Athlete (GRS204)
- 2008 Toyota Crown Hybrid (GWS204)
- 2009 Toyota Mark X (GRX133, 318 PS (234 kW; 314 hp) and 38.7 kg·m (380 N·m; 280 lb·ft) at 4,800 RPM)
- 2012 Lexus GS350
- 2009 Toyota Mark X +M Supercharger (265 KW, 355 hp)
- 2010 Lexus RX 450h, (GYL10/15/16), without D4S (conventional multiport indirect injection) 245 bhp (183 kW)
- 2010 Toyota Highlander Hybrid, without D4S (conventional multiport indirect injection) 245 bhp (183 kW)
- 2012 Lexus GS 450h (GWL10), with D4S (both multiport indirect and direct injection) 292 bhp (218 kW)
- 2013 Toyota Crown Majesta
The 3GR-FE is a 3.0 L (2994 cc) version with Dual VVT-i, designed for RWD longitudinal mounting. Bore is 87.5 mm while stroke is shared with the 2GR at 83 mm, with a compression ratio of 10.5:1. Output is 170 kW (228 hp) at 6,400 RPM, and 300 N·m (221 lb·ft) at 4,800 RPM.
The 3GR-FSE adds D4 direct injection. The 3GR-FSE engine is rated at 256 PS (188 kW; 252 hp) at 6,200 RPM and 32 kg·m (314 N·m; 231 lb·ft) at 3,600 RPM.
- 2004 Toyota Mark X (GRX121) (Japan)
- 2003 Toyota Crown Royal & Athlete (GRS182/183) (Japan)
- 2006 Lexus GS 300 (GRS190/195) (Europe & North America)
- 2008 Toyota Crown Royal (GRS202/203) (Japan)
- 2006-2009 Toyota Mark X Supercharged 320 ps (316 bhp)
The 4GR-FSE is a 2.5 L (2499 cc) version. Bore is 83.0 mm while stroke is reduced to 77.0 mm. Output is 207 PS (152 kW; 204 hp) at 6,400 RPM and 26.5 kg·m (260 N·m; 192 lb·ft) at 3,800 RPM. This version also features Dual VVT-i, variable valve timing on both the intake and exhaust cams and an improved D4 direct injection system.
The 5GR-FE is a 2.5 L (2497 cc) version. Bore is 87.5 mm while stroke is 69.2 mm with a compression ratio of 10.0:1. Output is 145 kW (194 hp) at 6,200 RPM and 24.7 kg·m (242 N·m; 179 lb·ft) at 4,400 RPM. This version does not include direct injection, but does include Dual VVT-i. The 5GR-FE engine is only built in China for vehicles for the Chinese market. Using the same bore as the 3GR-FE which is also built in China it can be built on the same production line, thus reducing production cost.
The 6GR-FE is a 4.0 L (3956 cc) version. Bore is 94.0 mm while stroke is 95.0 mm. This version does not include direct injection, but does include Dual VVT-i and is similar to the updated Dual VVT-i 1GR-FE.
- 2013 Toyota Coaster (GRB53) (China)
- "2013 Highlander Manual" (PDF). USA: Toyota. p. 628 (11 on PDF). Retrieved 2014-01-16.
- "Avalon Specifications". Bahrain: Toyota. Retrieved 2012-01-27.
- "Ward's Announces 2009 10 Best Engines Winners". Ward's AutoWorld. WardsAuto.com. 2008-12-05. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
- "Ward's 10 Best Engines Winners Reflect Fuel-Economy Focus (2008)". Ward's AutoWorld. WardsAuto.com. 2007-12-13. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
- "Ward's Announces 10 Best Engines Winners for 2007". Ward's AutoWorld. WardsAuto.com. 2006-12-05. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
- "Ward's 10 Best Engines for 2006". Ward's AutoWorld. WardsAuto.com. 2006-01-04. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
- "Mark X +M Supercharger specs" (in Japanese). 2009. Retrieved 2010-03-13.
- "techdoc". Toyota Motor Europe. Retrieved 2012-01-27.
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