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Toyota GR engine



Toyota GR engine
Manufacturer Toyota Motor Corporation
Production 2002–
Combustion chamber
Configuration DOHC 60° V6
Predecessor Toyota MZ engine
Toyota JZ engine (I6)
Toyota VZ engine

Toyota 1GR-FE engine 001 - Toyota GR engine
Toyota 1GR-FE engine 001

The Toyota GR engine family is an open-deck, V6 piston engine series. The GR series has a 60° die-cast aluminum block and aluminum DOHC cylinder heads. This engine series also features 4 valves per cylinder, forged steel connecting rods, one-piece cast camshafts, and a cast aluminum lower intake manifold. Some variants use multi-port fuel injection, some have D4 direct injection, and others have a combination of direct injection and multi-port fuel injection or D4-S.

The GR series replaces the previous MZ V6 and JZ inline-6, and in the case of light trucks the VZ V6.

Note: Power ratings have changed due to SAE measurement changes for 2006 model year vehicles. Toyota rates engines on 87 pump octane, Lexus rates engines on 91 pump octane.



1GR-FE 4.0 L V6 from a 2007 Toyota FJ Cruiser - Toyota GR engine
1GR-FE 4.0 L V6 from a 2007 Toyota FJ Cruiser

The 1GR-FE is the 4.0 L (3956 cc) version, designed for longitudinal mounting in RWD and 4WD pickup applications. It has a 94 mm bore and a stroke of 95 mm. Output is 236 hp (176 kW) at 5200 rpm with 266 lb·ft (361 N·m) of torque at 4000 rpm on 87 octane, and 239 hp (178 kW) at 5200 rpm with 278 lb·ft (377 N·m) at 3700 rpm on 91 octane. This engine features Toyota's VVT-i, variable valve timing system on the intake cam and a compression ratio of 10.0:1. Service weight, including fluids, is 166 kg (366 lb).

An updated version of this engine features Dual VVT-i, increasing output to 254 hp (189 kW) and 270 lb·ft (366 N·m) on 87 octane and 285 hp (213 kW) and 289 lb·ft (392 N·m) on 91 octane.[citation needed] Inside, the 1GR uses a "taper-squish" combustion chamber design with matching pistons to improve anti-knocking and engine performance, while also improving intake and fuel efficiency. Toyota adopted a siamese-type intake port, which reduces the surface area of the port walls and prevents fuel from adhering to such walls. This engine has special cast-iron cylinder liners cast into the block, which are a spiny type to improve adhesion between the liner and cylinder block. With these special thin liners it is impossible to bore the block. In the event of cylinder wall damage (scoring, deep protrusions, etc.), the entire cylinder block must be replaced. For increased block rigidity, the 1GR also receives a high temperature plastic insulator/protector, which fills the empty space between the outer portion of the cylinders and block material common to open deck engines. For increased cooling efficiency, the 1GR employs water passages between the bores of the engine. There are two such passages for each bank for a total of four. This reduces cylinder hot-spotting and keeps combustion chamber temperatures more uniform.

A bolt-on TRD supercharger kit is available on the Tacoma and FJ Cruiser.

Applications with VVT-i (calendar years):

Applications with Dual VVT-i (calendar years):



2GR-FE engine in the 2008 Lexus RX 350 - Toyota GR engine
2GR-FE engine in the 2008 Lexus RX 350

The 2GR-FE is a 3.5 L (3456 cc) version for transverse FWD, 4WD, or AWD mounting.[1] Bore remains at 94 mm but stroke is reduced to 83 mm. Reported output varies depending on the vehicle application, but is approximately 266 hp (198 kW) to 280 hp (209 kW) at 6200 rpm with 245 lb·ft (332 N·m) to 260 lb·ft (353 N·m) of torque at 4700 rpm on 87 octane (R+M/2).[2] This version features Toyota's Dual VVT-i, variable valve timing on both the intake and exhaust cams. The cams are driven using a timing chain.

Valves are driven by roller-follower rocker arms with low friction roller bearings, and a unique, concave cam lobe design to increase valve lift over the traditional shimless lifter type system of the 1GR-FE. This increases overall cylinder head height to accommodate the slightly taller roller rocker system. Moreover, the cylinder head is segmented into 3 parts: valve cover, camshaft sub-assembly housing, and cylinder head sub-assembly. As such, this valvetrain is used across all other GR engines with Dual VVT-i. Its service weight is 163 kg.

Applications (calendar years):

Supercharged (calendar years):


2GR-FSE engine in the 2008 Crown - Toyota GR engine
2GR-FSE engine in the 2008 Crown

The 2GR-FSE is a 3.5L engine used in the Lexus IS, GS 350, Mark X and Crown incorporate Toyota's latest D-4S twin injection fuel system. This system combines direct injection (949cc/min injectors) with traditional port injection (298cc/min injectors). Direct injection lowers the tendency to knock (detonation) and increases performance by reducing the charge intake temperature. Traditionally, direct injection engines require an in-engine mechanism such as swirl ports or specific piston crown shapes to increase air turbulence in the engine. These are in place to help achieve a homogeneous air-fuel mixture inside the cylinder at low RPM and high load, but these mechanisms inhibit performance at higher engine speeds. In the 2GR-FSE, port injection is used considerably to achieve the correct mixture without having in-engine restrictions, meaning the engine achieves specific power near the top of all naturally aspirated production gasoline engines in the world (67 kW/L, 235 kW in the Mark X). Toyota also developed a new type of injector for this engine. The dual fan spray pattern of the direct injectors is perpendicular to the piston travel with wide dispersion in the cylinder, which aids air and fuel mixture and therefore increases power and efficiency. The port injectors not only help improve the power and efficiency but they also help improve emissions, especially in the first 20 seconds after start-up (when the catalytic converter is in its warm-up stage). Development of V-6 3.5-liter Engine Adopting New Direct Injection System.

The 2GR-FSE engine is rated at 309 PS (227 kW; 305 hp) at 6,400 RPM and 38.4 kg·m (377 N·m; 278 lb·ft) at 4,800 RPM.

The engine's service weight is 174 kg.

The 2GR-FSE was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009.[3][4][5][6]

Applications (calendar years):


  • 2009 Toyota Mark X +M Supercharger (265 KW, 355 hp)[7]


Atkinson cycle, VVT-i, uses cooled EGR system.

For the Lexus RX 450h, the compression ratio was 12.5 to 1. For the Lexus GS 450h, the compression ratio was 13.0 to 1.[8]

Applications (calendar years):

  • 2010 Lexus RX 450h, (GYL10/15/16), without D-4S (conventional multiport indirect injection) 183 kW (245 bhp)
  • 2010 Toyota Highlander Hybrid, without D-4S (conventional multi-port indirect injection) 183 kW (245 bhp)
  • 2012 Lexus GS 450h (GWL10), with D-4S (both multi-port indirect and direct injection) 218 kW (292 bhp)
  • 2013 Toyota Crown Majesta


The 2GR-FKS combines the D-4S system from the 2GR-FSE with the simulated on-demand Atkinson cycle used in the 2UR-GSE and 8AR-FTS engines. The intake camshafts are equipped with VVT-iW and the exhaust camshafts are equipped with VVT-i. In the Tacoma the engine specifications are 207 kW (278 hp) at 6000 rpm and 359 N·m (265 lb·ft) at 4600 rpm.[9] In the Lexus RX 350 the engine specifications are 220 kW (295 hp) at 6300 rpm and 362 N·m (267 lb·ft) at 4700 rpm respectively. In the Lexus GS350 the engine specifications are 232 kW (311 hp) at 6400 rpm and 380 N·m (280 lb·ft) at 4800 rpm respectively.

Applications (calendar years):


The 2GR-FXS is the hybrid version of the 2GR-FKS.

Applications (calendar years):



3GR-FE engine in the 2007 IS 300 - Toyota GR engine
3GR-FE engine in the 2007 IS 300

The 3GR-FE is a 3.0 L (2994 cc) version with Dual VVT-i, designed for RWD longitudinal mounting. Bore is 87.5 mm while stroke is shared with the 2GR at 83 mm, with a compression ratio of 10.5:1. Output is 170 kW (228 hp) at 6,400 RPM, and 300 N·m (221 lb·ft) at 4,800 RPM.

Applications (calendar years):


The 3GR-FSE adds D-4 direct injection. The 3GR-FSE engine is rated at 256 PS (188 kW; 252 hp) at 6,200 RPM and 32 kg·m (314 N·m; 231 lb·ft) at 3,600 RPM.

Applications (calendar years):


  • 2006-2009 Toyota Mark X Supercharged 320 ps (316 bhp)


2004 Toyota 4GR-FSE engine. - Toyota GR engine
2004 Toyota 4GR-FSE engine.

The 4GR-FSE is a 2.5 L (2499 cc) version. Bore is 83.0[12]  mm while stroke is reduced to 77.0[12]  mm with a compression ratio of 12.0:1. Output is 207 PS (152 kW; 204 hp) at 6,400 RPM and 26.5 kg·m (260 N·m; 192 lb·ft) at 3,800 RPM. This version also features Dual VVT-i, variable valve timing on both the intake and exhaust cams and an improved D4 direct injection system.

Applications (calendar years):


The 5GR-FE is a 2.5 L (2497 cc) version. Bore is 87.5 mm while stroke is 69.2 mm with a compression ratio of 10.0:1. Output is 145 kW (194 hp) at 6,200 RPM and 24.7 kg·m (242 N·m; 179 lb·ft) at 4,400 RPM. This version does not include direct injection, but does include Dual VVT-i. The 5GR-FE engine is only built in China for vehicles for the Chinese market. Using the same bore as the 3GR-FE which is also built in China it can be built on the same production line, thus reducing production cost.

Applications (calendar years):


The 6GR-FE is a 4.0 L (3956 cc) version. Bore is 94.0 mm while stroke is 95.0 mm. This version does not include direct injection, but does include Dual VVT-i and is similar to the updated Dual VVT-i 1GR-FE.

Applications (calendar years):


The 7GR is 3.5L (3456 cc) version. Allegedly will utilize the new D-4S, VVT-ie, and simulated Atkinson cycle. Power numbers have not been released by Toyota.

Applications (calendar years):

  • 2015 Lexus RX350 (2016 model year)

See also


  1. ^ "2013 Highlander Manual" (PDF). US: Toyota. p. 628 (11 on PDF). Retrieved 2014-01-16. 
  2. ^ "Avalon Specifications". Bahrain: Toyota. Retrieved 2012-01-27. 
  3. ^ "Ward's Announces 2009 10 Best Engines Winners". Ward's AutoWorld. WardsAuto.com. 2008-12-05. Retrieved 2009-07-25. 
  4. ^ "Ward's 10 Best Engines Winners Reflect Fuel-Economy Focus (2008)". Ward's AutoWorld. WardsAuto.com. 2007-12-13. Retrieved 2009-07-25. 
  5. ^ "Ward's Announces 10 Best Engines Winners for 2007". Ward's AutoWorld. WardsAuto.com. 2006-12-05. Retrieved 2009-07-25. 
  6. ^ "Ward's 10 Best Engines for 2006". Ward's AutoWorld. WardsAuto.com. 2006-01-04. Retrieved 2009-07-25. 
  7. ^ "Mark X +M Supercharger specs" (in Japanese). 2009. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  8. ^ Lithgow, Ian. "2GR-FXE Toyota engine". http://australiancar.reviews. Retrieved 2015-08-28. 
  9. ^ a b "Tacoma Spec". US: Toyota. Retrieved 2015-08-15. 
  10. ^ "2016 Lexus GS 200t / GS 350 Product Information" (Press release). US: Toyota. 2015-08-13. Retrieved 2015-08-15. 
  11. ^ a b "2016 Lexus RX Redefines Segment with Style, Ride Comfort and Luxury Utility" (Press release). US: Toyota. 2015-09-08. Retrieved 2015-09-10. 
  12. ^ a b "techdoc". Toyota Motor Europe. Retrieved 2012-01-27. 
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