The Shakti Peethas (Sanskrit: शक्ति पीठ, Bengali: শক্তিপীঠ, Śakti Pīṭha, seat of Shakti) are places of worship consecrated to the goddess Shakti or Sati, the female principal of Hinduism and the main deity of the Shakta sect. They are sprinkled throughout the Indian subcontinent.
This goddess Shakti, the Goddess of power is the complete incarnation of Adi Shakti, has three chief manifestations, as Durga, Goddess of strength and valour, as Mahakali, goddess of destruction of evil and as Goddess Gowri, the goddess of benevolence.
Lord Brahma performed a yajna (Vedic ritual of fire sacrifice) to please Shakti and Shiva. Goddess Shakti emerged, separating from Shiva and helped Brahma in the creation of the universe. Brahma decided to give Shakti back to Shiva. Therefore his son Daksha performed several yajnas to obtain Shakti as his daughter in the form of Sati. It was then decided that Sati was brought into this world with the motive of getting married to Shiva.
However, due to Lord Shiva's curse to Brahma that his fifth head was cut off due to his lie in front of Shiva, Daksha started hating Lord Shiva and decided not to let Lord Shiva and Sati get married. However, Sati got attracted to Shiva and finally one day Shiva and Sati got married. This marriage only increased Daksha's hatred towards Lord Shiva.
Daksha performed a yajna with a desire to take revenge on Lord Shiva. Daksha invited all the deities to the yajna except Lord Shiva and Sati. The fact that she was not invited did not deter Sati from attending the yajna. She expressed her desire to attend the yajna to Shiva, who tried his best to dissuade her from going. Shiva eventually relented and Sati went to the yajna. Sati, being an uninvited guest, was not given any respect at the yajna. Furthermore, Daksha insulted Shiva. Sati was unable to bear her father's insults toward her husband, so she immolated herself.
Enraged at the insult and the injury, Shiva in Virabhadra avatar destroyed Daksha's yajna, cut off Daksha's head, and later replaced it with that of a male goat as he restored him to life. Still immersed in grief, Shiva picked up the remains of Sati's body, and performed the Tandava, the celestial dance of destruction, across all creation. The other Gods requested Vishnu to intervene to stop this destruction, towards which Vishnu used the Sudarshana Chakra, which cut through the Sati's corpse. The various parts of the body fell at several spots all through the Indian subcontinent and formed sites which are known as Shakti Peethas today.
At all the Shakti Peethas, the Goddess Shakti is accompanied by her consort, Lord Bhairava (a manifestation of Lord Shiva). Shakti is an aspect of the Supreme Being Adi parashakti, the mother of the trimurti, the holy trinity in Hindu mythology.
Sati's Self Immolation
The mythology of Daksha yaga and Sati's self immolation had immense significance in shaping the ancient Sanskrit literature and even had impact on the culture of India. It led to the development of the concept of Shakti Peethas and there by strengthening Shaktism. Enormous mythological stories in puranas took the Daksha yaga as the reason for its origin. It is an important incident in Shaivism resulting in the emergence of Shree Parvati in the place of Sati Devi and making Shiva a grihastashrami (house holder) leading to the origin of Ganapathy and Subrahmanya.
Shakti Peethas are shrines or divine places of the Mother Goddess. These are places that are believes to have enshrined with the presence of Shakti due to the falling of body parts of the corpse of Sati Devi, when Lord Shiva carried it and wandered throughout Aryavartha in sorrow. There are 51 Shakti Peeth linking to the 51 alphabets in Sanskrit. Each temple has shrines for Shakti and Kalabhairava, and mostly Shakti and Kalabharava in different Shakti Peeth have different names.
Four Adi Shakti Pithas
Some of the great religious texts like the Shiva Purana, the Devi Bhagavata, the Kalika Purana and the AstaShakti recognize four major Shakti Peethas (centers), like Bimala (Pada Khanda) (inside the Jagannath temple of Puri, Odisha), Tara Tarini (Sthana Khanda, Purnagiri, Breasts) (Near Berhampur, Odisha), Kamakhya Temple (Yoni khanda) (Near Guwahati, Assam) and Dakhina Kalika (Mukha khanda) (Kolkata, West Bengal) originated from the limbs of the Corpse of Mata Sati in the Satya Yuga. The Astashakti and Kalika Purana says (in Sanskrit):
"Bimala Pada khandancha, Sthana khandancha Tarini (Tara Tarini), Kamakshya Yoni khandancha, Mukha khandancha Kalika (Dakshina Kalika) Anga pratyanga sanghena Vishnu Chakra Kshyta nacha"
Further explaining the importance of these four Pithas, the "Brihat Samhita" also gives the location of these Pithas as (In Sanskrit) "Rushikulya* Tatae Devi, Tarakashya Mahagiri, Tashya Srunga Stitha Tara Vasishta Rajitapara" (Rushikulya is a holy river flowing on the foot hill of the Tara Tarini Hill Shrine).
List of 4 Adi Shakti Pithas
In the listings below:
- "Shakti" refers to the Goddess worshipped at each location, all being manifestations of Dakshayani (Sati), Parvati or Durga;
- "Body Part or Ornament" refers to the body part or piece of jewellery that fell to earth, at the location on which the respective temple is built.
|Sr. No.||Place||Body Part or Ornament|
|1||In Puri, Odisha (inside Jagannath Temple complex)||Pada Bimala|
|2||BerhampurOdisha, Odisha||Sthana (Breasts) Tara Tarini|
|3||Guwahati - Assam||Yoni khanda Kamakshya|
|4||In Kalighat, Kolkata- West Bengal||Mukha khanda Dakshina Kalika|
Apart from these four there are 52 other famous Peethas recognised by religious texts. According to the Pithanirnaya Tantra the 52 peethas are scattered all over India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, Tibet, Bhutan and Pakistan. The Shivacharita besides listing 52 maha-peethas, speaks about 26 more upa-peethas. The Bengali almanac, Vishuddha Siddhanta Panjika too describes the 52 peethas including the present modified addresses. A few of the several accepted listings are given below. One of the few in South India, Srisailam in Andhra Pradesh became the site for a 2nd-century temple.
The List of 51 Shakti Pithas
In the listings below:
- "Shakti" refers to the Goddess worshipped at each location, all being manifestations of Dakshayani, Sati; later known as Parvati or Durga;
- "Bhairava" refers to the corresponding consort, each a manifestation of Shiva;
- "Body Part or Ornament" refers to the body part or piece of jewellery that fell to earth, at the location on which the respective temple is built.
|Sr. No.||Place||State in India/Country||Body Part or Ornament||Shakti||Bhairava|
|1||Amarnath, from Srinagar through Pahalgam 94 km by Bus, Chandanwari 16 km by walk||Jammu and Kashmir||Throat||Mahamaya||Trisandhyeshwar|
|2||Attahas village of Dakshindihi in the district of Bardhaman, near the Katwa railway station||West Bengal||Lips||Phullara||Vishvesh|
|3||Bahula, on the banks of Ajay river at Ketugram, 8 km from Katwa, Burdwan||West Bengal||Left arm||Goddess Bahula||Bhiruk|
|4||Bakreshwar, on the banks of Paaphara river, 24 km distance from Siuri Town, district Birbhum, 7 km from Dubrajpur Rly. Station||West Bengal||Portion between the eyebrows||Mahishmardini||Vakranath|
|5||Bhairavparvat, at Bhairav hills on the banks of Shipra river in the city of Ujjaini||Madhya Pradesh||Upper lips||Avanti||Lambkarna|
|6||Bhabanipur union, at Karatoyatat, 28 km distance from interior Sherpur upazila, Bogra District||Bangladesh||Left anklet (ornament)||Arpana||Vaman|
|7||Gandaki, Pokhara about 125 km on the banks of Gandaki river where Muktinath temple is situated||Nepal||Temple||Gandaki Chandi||Chakrapani|
|8||Goddess Saptashrungi (Goddess with 18 arms), at Vani in Nasik||Maharashtra||Chin (2 parts)||Bhramari||Vikritaksh|
|9||Hinglaj (Or Hingula), southern Baluchistan a few hours North-east of Gawadar and about 125 km towards North-west from Karachi||Pakistan||Bramharandhra (Part of the head)||Kottari||Bhimlochan|
|10||Jayanti at Nartiang village in the Jaintia Hills district. This Shakti Peetha is locally known as the Nartiang Durga Temple.||Meghalaya||Left thigh||Jayanti||Kramadishwar|
|11||Jessoreswari, situated at Ishwaripur, Shyamnagar, district Satkhira. The temple complex was built by Maharaja Pratapaditya, whose capital was Ishwaripur.||Bangladesh||Palms of hands and soles of the feet||Jashoreshwari||Chanda|
|12||Jwalaji, Kangra from Pathankot alight at Jwalamukhi Road Station from there 20 km||Himachal Pradesh||Tongue||Siddhida (Ambika)||Unmatta Bhairav|
|13||Kalipeeth, (Kalighat, Kolkata)||West Bengal||Right Toes||Kalika||Nakuleshwar|
|14||Kalmadhav on the banks of Shon river in a cave over hills near to Amarkantak||Madhya Pradesh||Left buttock||Kali||Asitang|
|15||Kamgiri, Kamakhya, in the Neelachal hills near Guwahati||Assam||Genitals||Kamakhya||Umanand|
|16||Kankalitala, on the banks of Kopai River 10 km north-east of Bolpur station in Birbhum district, Devi locally known as Kankaleshwari||West Bengal||Bone||Devgarbha||Ruru|
|17||Kanyashram of Balaambika - The Bhagavathy temple in Kanyakumari, the southernmost tip of mainland India, Tamil Nadu (also thought to be situated in Chittagong, Bangladesh)||Tamil Nadu||Back||Sarvani||Nimish|
|18||Karnat, Kangra||Himachal Pradesh||Both ears||Jayadurga||Abhiru|
|19||Kireet at Kireetkona village, 3 km from Lalbag Court Road station under district Murshidabad||West Bengal||Crown||Vimla||Sanwart|
|20||Locally known as Anandamayee Temple. Ratnavali, on the banks of Ratnakar river at Khanakul-Krishnanagar, district Hooghly||West Bengal||Right Shoulder||Kumari||Shiva|
|21||Locally known as Bhramari Devi. In Jalpaiguri near a small village Boda on the bank of river Teesta or Tri-shrota (combination of three flows) mentioned in Puranas||West Bengal||Left leg||Bhraamari||Ambar|
|22||Manas, under Tibet at the foot of Mount Kailash in Lake Mansarovar, a piece of Stone||Tibet||Right hand||Dakshayani||Amar|
|23||Manibandh, at Gayatri hills near Pushkar 11 km north-west of Ajmer||Rajasthan||Two Bracelets||Gayatri||Sarvanand|
|24||Mithila, near Janakpur railway station on the border of India and Nepal||Nepal||Left shoulder||Uma||Mahodar|
|25||Nainativu (Manipallavam), Northern Province, Sri Lanka. Located 36 km from the ancient capital of the Jaffna kingdom, Nallur. The murti of the Goddess is believed to have been consecrated and worshipped by Lord Indra. The protagonist, Lord Rama and antagonist, Ravana of the Sanskrit epic Ramayana have offered obeisances to the Goddess. Nāga and Garuda of the Sanskrit epic Mahabharata; resolved their longstanding feuds after worshipping this Goddess.||Sri Lanka||Silambu (Anklets)||Indrakshi (Nagapooshani / Bhuvaneswari)||Rakshaseshwar (Nayanair)|
|26||Nalhati, known as Nalateshwari Temple near Nalhati station of Birbhum district||West Bengal||Vocal chord with part of the tracheae||Kalika Devi||Yogesh|
|27||Nepal, near Pashupatinath Temple at Guhyeshwari Temple||Nepal||Both Knees||Mahashira||Kapali|
|28||On Chandranath hill near Sitakunda station of Chittagong District, Bangladesh. The famous Chandranath Temple on the top of the hill is the Bhairav temple of this Shakti Peetha, not the Shakti Peeth itself.||Bangladesh||Right arm||Bhawani||Chandrashekhar|
|29||Panchsagar exact location not known (thought to be near Haridwar)||Uttarakhand||Lower teeth||Varahi||Maharudra|
|30||Prabhas, 4 km from Veraval station near Somnath temple in Junagadh district||Gujarat||Stomach||Chandrabhaga||Vakratund|
|31||Prayag near Sangam at Allahabad||Uttar Pradesh||Finger||Lalita||Bhava|
|32||Present day Kurukshetra town or Thanesar ancient Sthaneshwar||Haryana||Ankle bone||Savitri/BhadraKali||Sthanu|
|33||Ramgiri, at Chitrakuta on the Jhansi Manikpur railway line||Uttar Pradesh||Right breast||Shivani||Chanda|
|34||Sainthia, locally Known as Nandikeshwari temple. Only 1.5 km from the railway station under a banyan tree within a boundary wall, Birbhum district||West Bengal||Necklace||Nandini||Nandikeshwar|
|35||Sarvashail or Godavaritir, at Kotilingeswar temple on the banks of Godavari river near Rajamundry||Andhra Pradesh||Cheeks||Rakini or Vishweshwari||Vatsnabh or Dandpani|
|36||Shivaharkaray, a little distance from Sukkur Station from Karachi||Pakistan||Eyes||Mahishmardini||Krodhish|
|37||Shondesh, at the source point of Narmada River in Amarkantak||Madhya Pradesh||Right buttock||Narmada||Bhadrasen|
|38||Shri Parvat, near Ladak, Jammu and Kashmir. Another belief: at Srisailam in Shriparvat hills under Kurnool district||Andhra Pradesh||Right anklet (ornament)||Shrisundari||Sundaranand|
|39||Shri Shail, at Joinpur village, Dakshin Surma, near Gotatikar, 3 km north-east of Sylhet town||Bangladesh||Neck||Mahalaxmi||Sambaranand|
|40||Shuchi, in a Shiva temple at Suchindrum 11 km on Kanyakumari Trivandrum road||Tamil Nadu||Upper teeth||Narayani||Sanhar|
|41||Sugandha, situated in Shikarpur, Gournadi, about 20 km from Barisal town, Bangladesh, on the banks of Sonda river.||Bangladesh||Nose||Sugandha||Trayambak|
|42||Udaipur, Tripura, at the top of the hills known as Tripura Sundari temple near Radhakishorepur village, a little distance away from Udaipur town||Tripura||Right leg||Tripura Sundari||Tripuresh|
|43||Ujaani, 16 km from Guskara station under Burdwan district||West Bengal||Right wrist||Mangal Chandika||Kapilambar|
|44||Varanasi at Manikarnika Ghat on banks of the Ganges at Kashi||Uttar Pradesh||Earring||Vishalakshi & Manikarni||Kalbhairav|
|45||Vibhash, at Tamluk under district Purba Medinipur||West Bengal||Left ankle||Kapalini (Bhimarupa)||Sarvanand|
|46||Virat, near Bharatpur||Rajasthan||Left toes||Ambika||Amriteshwar|
|47||Vrindavan, near new bus stand on Bhuteshwar road within Bhuteshwar Mahadev Temple, Katyayanipeeth. Vrindavan||Uttar Pradesh||Ringlets of hair||Uma||Bhutesh|
|48||Jalandhar, from Jalandhar Cantonment Station to Devi Talab.||Punjab||Left Breast||Tripurmalini||Bhutesh|
|49||Baidyanath Dham||Jharkhand||Heart||Jaya Durga||Baidyanath|
|50||Puri, Biraja in Shri Jagannatha Temple||Odisha||Navel||Bimala||Jagannath|
|51||Burdwan, Khirgram under Burdwan district, West Bengal, India||West Bengal||Great Toe||Jugaadya||Ksheer Khandak|
First relating to Brahmanda Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, it mentions 64 Shakthi Peetha of Goddess Parvati in the Bharat or Greater India including present day India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Another text which gives a listing of these shrines, is the Shakthi Peetha Stotram, written by Adi Shankara, the 9th-century Hindu philosopher.
According to the manuscript Mahapithapurana (c. 1690 – 1720 CE), there are 52 such places. Among them, 23 are located in the Bengal region, 14 of these are located in what is now West Bengal, India, 1 in Baster (Chhattisgarh), while 7 are in what is now Bangladesh.
Rishi Markandeya composed the 'Devi Saptashati' or the seven hundred hymns extolling the virtues of the Divine Goddess at the shaktipeetha in Nashik. The idol is also leaning a little to the left to listen to the sages composition. The Saptashati or the "Durga Stuti" forms an integral part in the vedic form of Shakti worship.
Preserving the mortal relics of famous and respected individuals was a common practice in ancient India - seen in the Buddhist stupas which preserve the relics of Gautama Buddha. It is believed by some that these 64 peethas preserve the remains of some ancient female sage from whom the legend of Kali could have emerged and then merged with the Purusha - Prakriti (Shiva Shakti) model of Hindu thought.
18 Maha Shakti Pithas
The modern cities or towns that correspond to these 64 locations can be a matter of dispute, but there are a few that are totally unambiguous, these are mentioned in the Ashta Dasa Shakthi Peetha Stotram by Adi Shankara. This list contains 18 such locations which are often referred to as Maha Shakthi Peeths.
|Sr. No.||Place||Part of the body fallen||Name of Shakti|
|1||Trincomalee (Sri Lanka)||Groin||Shankari devi|
|2||Kanchi (Tamil Nadu)||Back part||Kamakshi Devi|
|3||Pandua (West Bengal)||Stomach||Srigala Devi|
|4||Mysore (Karnataka)||Hair||Chamundeshwari devi|
|5||Alampur (Andhra Pradesh)||Upper teeth||Jogulamba devi (Yogamba devi)|
|6||Shrishailam, (Andhra Pradesh)||Neck part||Bhramaramba devi|
|7||Kolhapur (Maharastra)||Eyes||Mahalakshmi devi|
|8||Mahur (Nanded District, Maharastra)||Head||Ekaveerika Devi|
|9||Ujjain (Madhya Pradesh)||Upper lip||Mahakali devi|
|10||Pithapuram (Andhra Pradesh)||Left hand||Puruhutika devi|
|11||Jajpur (Odisha)||Navel||Biraja Devi|
|12||Draksharamam (Andhra Pradesh)||Left cheek||Manikyamba devi|
|13||Guwahati (Assam)||Vulva||Kamarupa devi|
|14||Prayaga (Uttar Pradesh)||Fingers||Madhaveswari devi|
|15||Kangra, Jwalamukhi (Himachal Pradesh)||Tongue||Vaishnavi devi|
|16||Gaya (Bihar)||Breast part||Sarvamangala devi|
|17||Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh)||Wrist||Vishalakshi devi|
|18||Sharada Peeth (Kashmir) *||Right hand||Saraswathi devi|
[*]Sharada Peeth:This temple is currently non-existent*. Only ruins are found in these places. Its ruins are near the Line of Control (LOC) between the Indian and Pakistani-controlled portions of the former princely state of Kashmir and Jammu. Instead, Sringeri Sharada Peetham, Sringeri in Karnataka even though not a Shakti Peetha is this aspect of the goddess, Requests are been made by the Hindu community in Pakistan to the Pakistani government to renovate the temple, the issue was raised by former Indian Home minister L. K. Advani to the Pakistan authorities as a confidence building measure, by increasing the people to people interaction cross border.
Among these, the Shakti Peethas at Kamakhya, Gaya and Ujjain are regarded as most sacred as they symbolise three most important aspects of mother Goddess viz. Creation (Kamarupa Devi), Nourishment (Sarvamangala Devi/Mangalagauri) and Annihilation (Mahakali Devi).
When observed carefully one can see that they lie in a perfect straight line from Kamakhya to Ujjain via Gaya symbolizing that every creation in this universe will annihilate one day without fail.
- Fuller, Christopher John (2004). The Camphor Flame: Popular Hinduism and Society in India. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-691-12048-5.
- Article, from Banglapedia.
- (Translator), F. Max Muller (June 1, 2004). The Upanishads, Vol I. Kessinger Publishing, LLC. ISBN 1419186418.
- (Translator), F. Max Muller (July 26, 2004). The Upanishads Part II: The Sacred Books of the East Part Fifteen. Kessinger Publishing, LLC. ISBN 1417930160.
- "Kottiyoor Devaswam Temple Administration Portal". http://kottiyoordevaswom.com/. Kottiyoor Devaswam. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
- 52 Pithas of Parvati - From Hindunet
- Shakti Pitha sites in India
- Shakthi Peetha Stotram Vedanta Spiritual Library
- Ashta Dasa Shakthi Peetha Stotram From Hindupedia
- html ASTADASA MAHA SAKTHI-PEETHAS From srisailam.co.in
- Pollock, Sheldon (2006). Language of the Gods in the World of Men. University of California Press
- Hindu, The (3 October 2007). "Pandits denied entry into temple in PoK". The Hindu, Newspaper.
- "Pak should renovate Sharada Temple in PoK: Advani". zeenews.india. May 2, 2007. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
Heart Ambaji Gujarat Devi Patan Locate at Tulsipur Disctt. Balrampur Uttar Pradesh not in Patana Bhihar
- Phyllis K. Herman, California State University, Northridge (USA), "Siting the Power of the Goddess: Sita Rasoi Shrines in Modern India", International Ramayana Conference Held at Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL USA, September 21–23, 2001.
- Hindu Goddesses: Vision of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu Religious Traditions (ISBN 81-208-0379-5) by David Kinsley
- com/navratra/Shaktipeeth.html 51 Nav Durga Shaktipeeths- Legend and listing Zee News