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Nieuport 10



Nieuport 10
Role reconnaissance, fighter and trainer
Manufacturer Nieuport
Designer Gustave Delage
First flight 1914
Introduction 1915
Status retired
Primary users Aéronautique Militaire
Royal Naval Air Service
Imperial Russian Air Service
Produced 1915-1918
Variants Nieuport 12

Nieuport 10 colourized - Nieuport 10
Nieuport 10 colourized

The Nieuport 10 was a French First World War biplane that filled a wide variety of roles including reconnaissance, fighter and trainer.


Design and development

Nieuport 10 triplane - Nieuport 10
Nieuport 10 triplane
Nieuport 10 lower wing patent which was intended to allow the lower wing to pivot to act as a flap for improved low speed handling. - Nieuport 10
Nieuport 10 lower wing patent which was intended to allow the lower wing to pivot to act as a flap for improved low speed handling.

In January 1914, designer Gustave Delage joined the Société Anonyme des Etablissements Nieuport, and started working on a series of aircraft that would remain in production for the remainder of the First World War. The Nieuport 10 was first of these and was originally designed to compete in the Gordon Bennett Trophy race of 1914. World War I caused this contest to be cancelled, and the type was developed as a military two seat reconnaissance aircraft that entered service in 1915.

The type featured a distinctive "V" strut layout. The lower wing was much smaller in area than the upper wing, and the concept was intended to combine the strength of the biplane's wire braced wing cell with the good visibility of the parasol monoplane.[1]

Many were converted or built as single-seat fighters by covering the front cockpit, and adding a Lewis Gun or Vickers machine gun either to fire through the center section of the top wing or mounted over it, firing forwards. In this form, the type was used as a fighter.

Two major types were developed from the Nieuport 10 - the Nieuport 11 Bébé - a smaller aircraft, designed from the outset as a single-seater, and the Nieuport 12 - a more powerful two-seater with a larger top wing. In addition, production was undertaken of a dedicated trainer version under the Nieuport 83 E.2 designation with detail changes. A single example of a triplane, using a Nieuport 10 airframe was built to test an unusual staggered wing concept.


Nieuport X.B
Early designation distinguishing it from the earlier unrelated Nieuport X monoplane.
Nieuport X.AV
Company designation with the observer/gunner seated in the front and the pilot in the rear.
Nieuport X.AR
Company designation with the pilot seated in the front and the observer/gunner in the rear.
Nieuport 10 A.2
Two seat reconnaissance (Artillerie) aircraft, same as Nieuport X.AR.
Nieuport 10 C.1
Single-seat fighter variant. Inspired development of Nieuport 11 C.1.
Nieuport 10 E.2
Nieuport 10 A.2s used for training.
Nieuport 83 E.2
Purpose built trainer with detail modifications.
Nieuport-Macchi 10.000
Italian built Nieuport 10 with many detail modifications.
Nieuport 18 or 18 meter Nieuport
Unofficial description of basic type based on nominal wing area of 18 square meters.
Nakajima Army Type Ko 2 Trainer
Nieuport 83 E.2 built under licence in Japan.
Trainer Type 2
Siamese designation for imported Nieuport 83 E.2.



Two Nieuport-Macchi 10,000's survive in Italy, one at the Museo Storico Italiano della Guerra and one at the Museo della Scienza e della Tecnologia "Leonardo da Vinci" and one original Nieuport 83 E.2, flown by Charles Nungesser while barnstorming, is at Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome on static display.

Specifications (Nieuport 10)

Nieuport 10 aileron patent showing characteristic control system details. - Nieuport 10
Nieuport 10 aileron patent showing characteristic control system details.

General characteristics

  • Crew: one, pilot
  • Length: 7.09 m (23 ft 3 in)
  • Wingspan: 8.20 m (26 ft 11 in)
  • Height: 2.7 m (8 ft 11 in)
  • Wing area: 18 m² (193.8 ft²)
  • Empty weight: 411 kg (905 lb)
  • Loaded weight: 658 kg (1,450 lb)
  • Powerplant: 1 × le Rhône 9C rotary, 60 kW (80 hp)



See also



  1. ^ Fitzsimons 1967/1969, p. 1989.
  2. ^ Janić Č, Petrović O, Short History of Aviation in Serbia, Beograd, Aerokomunikacije, 2011. ISBN 978-86-913973-2-6


  • Apostolo, Giorgio (1991). Aermacchi - from Nieuports to AMX. Milan, Italy: Giorgio Apostolo Editore (GAE). 
  • Bruce, J.M. (1998). Nieuport 10~12 - Windsock Datafile 68. Herts, UK: Albatros Publications. ISBN 978-1902207018. 
  • Cooksley, Peter (1997). Nieuport Fighters In Action. In Action Aircraft Number 167. Carrollton, TX: Squadron/Signal Publications. ISBN 978-0897473774. 
  • Davilla, Dr. James J.; Soltan, Arthur (1997). French Aircraft of the First World War. Mountain View, CA: Flying Machines Press. ISBN 978-1891268090. 
  • Durkota, Alan; Darcey, Thomas; Kulikov, Victor (1995). The Imperial Russian Air Service — Famous Pilots and Aircraft of World War I. Mountain View, CA: Flying Machines Press. ISBN 0-9637110-2-4. 
  • Rimmell, Ray (1990). World War One Survivors. Bucks: Aston Publications. ISBN 0-946627-44-4. 
  • Rosenthal, Léonard; Marchand, Alain; Borget, Michel; Bénichou, Michel (1997). Nieuport 1909-1950 Collection Docavia Volume 38. Clichy Cedex, France: Editions Lariviere. ISBN 978-2848900711. 
  • Sanger, Ray (2002). Nieuport Aircraft of World War One. Wiltshire: Crowood Press. ISBN 978-1861264473. 
  • Taylor, John W. R.; Alexander, Jean (1969). Combat Aircraft of the World. New York: Putnam. pp. 112–113. LCCN 68-25459. 
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