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Krampus

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Overview

Krampus and Saint Nicholas visit a Viennese home in 1896. - Krampus
Krampus and Saint Nicholas visit a Viennese home in 1896.

Krampus is a beast-like creature from the folklore of Alpine countries thought to punish children during the Christmas season who had misbehaved, in contrast with Saint Nicholas, who rewards well-behaved ones with gifts. Krampus is said to capture particularly naughty children in his sack and carry them away to his lair. While Saint Nicholas is known colloquially as "Santa Claus", Krampus is often sarcastically referred to as the "Anti-Claus".

Krampus is represented as a beast-like creature, generally demonic in appearance. The creature has roots in Germanic folklore; however, its influence has spread far beyond German borders. Traditionally young men dress up as the Krampus in Austria, Romania, southern Bavaria, South Tyrol, northern Friuli, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia and Croatia during the first week of December, particularly on the evening of 5 December (the eve of Saint Nicholas Day on many church calendars), and roam the streets frightening children with rusty chains and bells. Krampus is featured on holiday greeting cards called Krampuskarten. There are many names for Krampus, as well as many regional variations in portrayal and celebration.

Origins

Krampus at Morzger Pass in Salzburg - Krampus
Krampus at Morzger Pass in Salzburg

The history of the Krampus figure has been theorized as stretching back to pre-Christian traditions. In a brief article discussing the figure, published in 1958, Maurice Bruce comments that, regarding Krampus:

There seems to be little doubt as to his true identity for, in no other form is the full regalia of the Horned God of the Witches so well preserved. The birch—apart from its phallic significance—may have a connection with the initiation rites of certain witch-covens; rites which entailed binding and scourging as a form of mock-death. The chains could have been introduced in a Christian attempt to 'bind the Devil' but again they could be a remnant of pagan initiation rites.[1]

Discussing his observations while in Irdning, a small town in Upper Austria in 1975, anthropologist John J. Honigmann comments that:

The Saint Nicholas festival we are describing incorporates cultural elements widely distributed in Europe, in some cases going back to pre-Christian times. Nicholas himself became popular in Germany around the eleventh century. The feast dedicated to this patron of children is only one winter occasion in which children are the objects of special attention, others being Martinmas, the feast of the Holy Innocents, and New Year's Day. Masked devils acting boisterously and making nuisances of themselves are known in Germany since at least the sixteenth century while animal masked devils combining dreadful-comic (schauriglustig) antics appeared in Medieval church plays. A large literature, much of it by European folklorists, bears on these subjects. ... Austrians in the community we studied are quite aware of "heathen" elements being blended with Christian elements in the Saint Nicholas customs and in other traditional winter ceremonies. They believe Krampus derives from a pagan supernatural who was assimilated to the Christian devil.[2]

Whatever his origins, the Krampus figures persisted, and by the 17th century Krampus had been incorporated into Christian winter celebrations by pairing them with St Nicholas.[3]

Countries of the former Habsburg Empire have largely borrowed the tradition of Krampus accompanying St Nicholas on 5 December from Austria.

Modern history

In the 20th century, Austrian governments discouraged the practice. In the aftermath of the 1934 Austrian Civil War, the Krampus tradition was prohibited by the Dollfuss regime[4] under the Fatherland's Front (Vaterländische Front) and the Christian Social Party. In the 1950s, the government distributed pamphlets titled "Krampus is an Evil Man".[5] Towards the end of the century, a popular resurgence of Krampus celebrations occurred and continues today.[6] There has been public debate in Austria in modern times about whether Krampus is appropriate for children.[7]

Appearance

Krampus parade in Pörtschach am Wörthersee (2013) - Krampus
Krampus parade in Pörtschach am Wörthersee (2013)

Although Krampus appears in many variations, most share some common physical characteristics. He is hairy, usually brown or black, and has the cloven hooves and horns of a goat. His long pointed tongue lolls out.[1][8]

Krampus carries chains, thought to symbolize the binding of the Devil by the Christian Church. He thrashes the chains for dramatic effect. The chains are sometimes accompanied with bells of various sizes.[9] Of more pagan origins are the ruten, bundles of birch branches that Krampus carries and occasionally swats children with.[1] The ruten have significance in pre-Christian pagan initiation rites.[1] The birch branches are replaced with a whip in some representations. Sometimes Krampus appears with a sack or a washtub strapped to his back; this is to cart off evil children for drowning, eating, or transport to Hell.[1]

Krampusnacht

A modern Krampus at the Perchtenlauf in Klagenfurt (2006) - Krampus
A modern Krampus at the Perchtenlauf in Klagenfurt (2006)

The Feast of St. Nicholas is celebrated in parts of Europe on 6 December. In Alpine countries, Saint Nicholas has a devilish companion named Krampus[10] On the preceding evening, Krampus Night or Krampusnacht, the hairy devil appears on the streets. Sometimes accompanying St Nicholas and sometimes on his own, Krampus visits homes and businesses.[1] The Saint usually appears in the Eastern Rite vestments of a bishop, and he carries a ceremonial staff. Unlike North American versions of Santa Claus, in these celebrations Saint Nicholas concerns himself only with the good children, while Krampus is responsible for the bad. Nicholas dispenses gifts, while Krampus supplies coal and the ruten bundles.[11]

Krampuslaufen

A Krampuslauf is a run of celebrants dressed as the beast, often fueled by alcohol. It is customary to offer a Krampus schnapps, a strong distilled fruit brandy.[1] These runs may include perchten, similarly wild pagan spirits of Germanic folklore and sometimes female in representation, although the perchten are properly associated with the period between winter solstice and 6 January.

Krampuskarten

A greeting card featuring Krampus - Krampus
A greeting card featuring Krampus

Europeans have been exchanging greeting cards featuring Krampus since the 1800s. Sometimes introduced with Gruß vom Krampus (Greetings from the Krampus), the cards usually have humorous rhymes and poems. Krampus is often featured looming menacingly over children. He is also shown as having one human foot and one cloven hoof. In some, Krampus has sexual overtones; he is pictured pursuing buxom women.[12] Over time, the representation of Krampus in the cards has changed; older versions have a more frightening Krampus, while modern versions have a cuter, more Cupid-like creature. Krampus has also adorned postcards and candy containers.[13]

Regional variations

Krampus appears in various forms, and as part of differing celebrations, throughout central Europe. In Styria, the ruten bundles are presented by Krampus to families. The twigs are painted gold and displayed year-round in the house—a reminder to any child who has temporarily forgotten Krampus. In smaller, more isolated villages, the character has other beastly companions, such as the antlered "wild man" figures, and St Nicholas is nowhere to be seen. These Styrian companions of Krampus are called Schabmänner or Rauhen.[1]

A toned-down version is part of the popular Christmas markets in Austrian urban centres like Salzburg. In these, more tourist-friendly interpretations, Krampus is more humorous than fearsome.[14]

In the 1600s, the Lutheran Church presented a "christchild" figure in the place of the Catholic Saint Nicholas. Representing the baby Jesus but often appearing as a young maiden, this figure was also paired with Krampus in some areas. In France's Alsace region, Krampus is known as Hans Trapp and accompanies a "christchild" character during the holiday season.[11]

North American Krampus celebrations, though rare, are a growing phenomenon.[15] Some traditional Germanic communities in the north-east of the United States have preserved a Krampus tradition; in these he goes by Bellsnichol and combines aspects of both the wild man and Saint Nicholas.[11]

Other names

Outside of krampus, the being has many names. Klaubauf is used throughout Austria, while Bartl or Bartel, Niglobartl, and Wubartl are used in the southern part of the country.[1][16] Outside Austria, Krampus and related creatures go by Pelzebock or Pelznickel in southern Germany, and Gumphinckel in Silesia.[17] In Hungary, he is Krampusz (often used to refer to the entire race of these creatures),[3] and in Switzerland, Schmutzli.[18]

See also

References

Santa Claus, Last of the Wild Men: The Origins and Evolution of Saint Nicholas, Spanning 50,000 Years
Phyllis Siefker (1996)
Much of the modern-day vision of Santa Claus is owed to the Clement Moore poem “The Night Before Christmas.” His description of Saint Nicholas personified the “jolly old elf” known to millions of children throughout the world. However, far from being the offshoot of Saint Nicholas of Turkey, Santa Claus is the last of a longline of what scholars call Wild Men who were worshipped in ancient European fertility rites and came to America through Pennsylvania’s Germans. This pagan creature is described from prehistoric times through his various forms—Robin Hood, The Fool, Harlequin, Satan and Robin Goodfellow—into today’s carnival and Christmas scenes. In this thoroughly researched work, the origins of Santa Claus are found to stretch back over 50,000 years, jolting the foundation of Christian myths about the jolly old elf.
Devil in Design: Krampus
Monte Beauchamp (2004)
A collection of vintage Christmas cards for very bad little girls and boys.The Devil in Design is a fascinating, full-color compendium of extremely rare, late 19th and early 20th-century Krampus postcards culled from key postcard collections from around the world. Lavishly illustrated with over a 150 striking and stylized full-page examples, the book also includes a short introduction tracing the character's origin and its overwhelming popularity throughout Europe. In the Christmas traditions of Europe, the Krampus is Saint Nicholas's dark servant—a hairy, horned, supernatural beast whose pointed ears and long slithering tongue gave misbehavers the creeps! Whereas Saint Nicholas would reward children who had been good all year with treats, those that had been disobedient were paid a visit by the Krampus. The Krampus terrorized the bad until they promised to be good. Some he'd spank; others he'd whip, while others he'd shackle, stuff into his large wooden basket, and then hurl into the flames of Hell! Such scenarios were delineated by skilled and imaginative Old World craftsmen, printed on penny postcards and disseminated throughout Europe. The Devil in Design is the first English-language book to offer this breathtaking collection of the finest, rarest, and most visually-stunning Krampus cards history has left to offer. Full color throughout
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Bruce, Maurice (March 1958). "The Krampus in Styria". Folklore 69 (1): 44–47. doi:10.1080/0015587X.1958.9717121. 
  2. ^ Honigmann, John J (Autumn 1977). "The Masked Face". Ethos (Wiley (on behalf of the American Anthropological Association) 5 (3): 263–80. 
  3. ^ a b "Run, Kris Kringle, Krampus is Coming!". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 17 December 2011. 
  4. ^ "Krampus disliked in Fascist Austria; Genial Black and Red Devil, Symbol of Christmas Fun, Is Frowned Upon". The New York Times. 23 December 1934. 
  5. ^ "Throw Out Krampus". Time. 7 December 1953. p. 41. Retrieved 18 December 2011. 
  6. ^ Silver, Marc (30 November 2009). "Merry Krampus?". NGM Blog Central. National Geographic Society. Retrieved 17 December 2011. 
  7. ^ Alexandra, Zawadil (6 December 2006). "Santa's evil sidekick? Who knew?". Reuters. 
  8. ^ Zeller, Tom (24 December 2000). "Have a Very Scary Christmas". The New York Times. 
  9. ^ Gatzke, Gretchen (1 December 2009). "Krampus? Who’s That?". The Vienna Review. Retrieved 17 December 2011. 
  10. ^ "Horror for the Holidays: Meet the Anti Santa". National Public Radio. Retrieved 22 December 2011. 
  11. ^ a b c Siefker, Phyllis (1997). Santa Claus, last of the Wild Men: the origins and evolution of Saint Nicholas. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland and Co. pp. 155–159. ISBN 0-7864-0246-6. 
  12. ^ Beauchamp, Monte (2004). The Devil in Design: The Krampus Postcards. Seattle, Washington: Fantagraphics. pp. 14–29, 32. ISBN 1-56097-542-3. 
  13. ^ Apkarian-Russell, Pamela (2001). Postmarked yesteryear: art of the holiday postcard. Portland, Oregon: Collectors Press. p. 136. ISBN 1-888054-54-9. 
  14. ^ Haid, Oliver (2006). "Christmas markets in the Tyrolean Alps: Representing regional traditions in a newly created world of Christmas". In David Picard, Mike Robinson. Festivals, tourism and social change: remaking worlds. Buffalo, New York: Channel View Publications. pp. 216–19. ISBN 978-1-84541-048-3. 
  15. ^ Crimmins, Peter (10 December 2011). "Horror for the Holidays: Meet the Anti-Santa". National Public Radio. 
  16. ^ Miles, Clement A. (1912). "VIII". Christmas in ritual and tradition: Christian and Pagan. Toronto: Bell and Cockburn. pp. 227–29. ISBN 0-665-81125-X. 
  17. ^ Scott, Delilah; Troy, Emma (2010). The upside-down Christmas tree and other bizarre yuletide tales. Guilford, Connecticut: Lyons Press. pp. 126–27. ISBN 1-59921-419-9. 
  18. ^ McLean, Movern. "Schmutzli: the Swiss Santa's sinister sidekick". swissinfo.ch. Retrieved 17 December 2012. 
  19. ^ Tanya Basu (2013-12-17). "Who Is Krampus? Explaining the Horrific Christmas Devil: The mythical Krampus is meant to whip children into being nice.". nationalgeographic.com. National Geographic. Retrieved 23 April 2014. 
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