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History of Asian Americans

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Overview



History of Asian Americans - History of Asian Americans
History of Asian Americans

Asian American history is the history of an ethnic and racial groups in the United States who are immigrants or descendants of persons from the continent of Asia. Spickard (2007) shows that "'Asian American' was an idea invented in the 1960s to bring together Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino Americans for strategic political purposes. Soon other Asian-origin groups, such as Korean, Vietnamese, Hmong and South Asian Americans, were added."[1] They had arrived as unskilled workers in significant numbers 1850–1905, and largely settled in Hawaii and California. They were the subject of intense hostility on the mainland into the 1940s.[2] Since the change in the immigration laws in 1965, middle class Asians from many countries arrived in large numbers as college students, engineers and businessmen. Their image of success was portrayed with headlines of the "Model Minority". For the contemporary situation see Asian American.

Hostility

San Lorenzo, California. Fruit and vegetable stand on highway operated by Filipino. - History of Asian Americans
San Lorenzo, California. Fruit and vegetable stand on highway operated by Filipino.

The Chinese arrived in the U.S. in large numbers on the West Coast in the 1850s and 1860s to work in the gold mines and railroads. They encountered very strong opposition—violent as riots and physical attacks forced them out of the gold mines. The Central Pacific railroad hired thousands, but after the line was finished in 1869 they were hounded out of many railroad towns in states such as Wyoming and Nevada. Most wound up in Chinatowns—areas of large cities which the police largely ignored. The Chinese were attacked—especially by Irish Americans (who were themselves recent immigrants)--as undesirable and inassimilable strangers who brought disease, economic competition, vice (gambling, prostitution and opium), and immorality to the communities in which they settled. The Chinese were further alleged to be "coolies" who were practically slaves, and were said to be not suitable for becoming independent thoughtful voters because of their alien mindset and their control by tongs. The same negative reception hit the Asians who migrated to Mexico and Canada.[3][4]

The Japanese arrived in large numbers 1890–1907, many going to Hawaii (an independent country until 1898), and others to the West Coast. Hostility was very high on the West Coast, but not especially violent. Hawaii was a multicultural society in which the Japanese experienced about the same level of distrust as other groups. Indeed, they were the largest population group by 1910, and after 1950 took political control of Hawaii. The Japanese on the West Coast of the U.S. (as well as Canada and Latin America) were interned during World War II, but not those on Hawaii.

Historiography

According to Chan (1996) The historiography of Asians in America falls into four periods. The 1870s to the 1920s saw partisan debates over curtailing Chinese and Japanese immigration; "Yellow Peril" diatribes battled strong, missionary-based defenses of the immigrants. Studies written from the 1920s to the 1960s were dominated by social scientists, who focused on issues of assimilation and social organization, as well as the World War II internment camps. Activist revisionism marked the 1960s to the early 1980s as a new wave of Asian-American scholars rejected the dominant assimilationist paradigm, and instead turned to classical Marxism and internal colonialist models. Starting in the early 1980s there was an increased stress on human agency. Only after 1990 has there been much scholarship by professional historians.

Chronology

Major milestones according to standard reference works[5] are:

16th century

  • 1587, "Luzonians" set foot in North America arrive in Morro Bay, (San Luis Obispo) California on board the Manila-built galleon ship Nuestra Senora de Esperanza under the command of Spanish Captain Pedro de Unamuno.[6][7]
  • 1595, Filipino sailors aboard a Spanish "galleon" the San Agustin which was commanded by Captain Sebastian Rodriguez Cermeno arrive on the shores of Point Reyes outside the mouth of the Bay Area. The ship was on a trip to Acapulco before it was shipwrecked on the aforementioned area.[8]

17th century

18th century

  • 1763, Filipinos established the small settlement of Saint Malo in the bayous of Louisiana, after fleeing mistreatment aboard Spanish ships. Since there were no Filipino women with them, the Manilamen, as they were known, married Cajun and Native American women.[10]
  • 1778, Chinese sailors first came to Hawaii the same year that Captain James Cook came upon the island. Many settled and married Hawaiian women.

19th century

  • 1820s, Chinese (mostly merchants, sailors, and students) begin to immigrate via Sino-U.S. maritime trade.
  • 1841, Captain Whitfield, commanding an American whaler in the Pacific, rescues five shipwrecked Japanese sailors. Four disembark at Honolulu, however Manjiro Nakahama stays on board returning with Whitfield to Fairhaven, Massachusetts. After attending school in New England and adopting the name John Manjiro, he later became an interpreter for Commodore Matthew Perry.
  • 1850, seventeen survivors of a Japanese shipwreck were saved by an American freighter; In 1852, the group joins Commodore Matthew Perry to help open diplomatic relations with Japan. One of them, Joseph Heco (Hikozo Hamada) later becomes a naturalized US citizen.
  • 1854, the California Supreme Court case ruled that the testimony of a Chinese man who witnessed a murder by a white man was inadmissible.[11]
  • 1861 The utopian minister Thomas Lake Harris of the Brotherhood of the New Life visits England, where he meets Nagasawa Kanaye, who becomes a convert. Nagasawa returns to the US with Harris and follows him to Fountaingrove in Santa Rosa, California. When Harris leaves the Californian commune, Nagasawa became the leader and remained there until his death in 1932.
  • 1862, California imposes a tax of $2.50 a month on every Chinese man
  • 1865, The Central Pacific Railroad Co. recruits Chinese workers for the transcontinental railroad from California to Utah. Many are killed or injured in the harsh conditions blasting through difficult mountain terrain.
  • 1869, A group of Japanese build the Wakamatsu Tea and Silk Colony in Gold Hill, California
  • 1869, The Fourteenth Amendment gives full citizenship to every baby born in the U.S., regardless of race.
  • 1877, Denis Kearney organizes anti-Chinese movement in San Francisco; forms Workingmen's Party of California alleging Chinese workers took lower wages, poorer conditions, and longer hours than white workers were willing to tolerate
  • 1878, Chinese are ruled ineligible for naturalized citizenship.
  • 1882, Chinese Exclusion Act is passed banning immigration of laborers from China. Students and businessmen are allowed.
  • 1886 the Rock Springs massacre in Wyoming kills 28 Chinese miners.
  • 1887, Robbers kill 31 Chinese miners Snake River, Oregon.
  • 1890, In Hawaiʻi, then an independent country, sugar plantations hire large numbers of Japanese, Chinese and Filipinos; they form a majority of the population by 1898.
  • 1898 Hawaiʻi joins the U.S. as a territory. Most residents are Asian and they all receive full U.S. citizenship.
  • 1898 The Philippines joins the U.S. as a territory. The residents of the Philippines become U.S. nationals.

20th century to 1940

  • 1902, Yone Noguchi publishes The American Diary of a Japanese Girl.
  • 1903 Ahn Chang Ho, pen name Dosan, founded the Friendship Society in 1903 and the Mutual Assistant Society.
  • 1904, Seungman Rhee (이승만), comes to the U.S. to earn a B.A at George Washington University and a Ph.D from Princeton University. In 1910, he returned to Korea and became a political activist during Japanese occupation of Korea. He later became the first president of South Korea.
  • 1906 The San Francisco segregates Japanese students, but withdraws at the request of President Theodore Roosevelt and protests by the Japanese government.
  • 1907, Gentlemen's Agreement between United States and Japan that Japan would stop issuing passports for new laborers.
  • 1910, Angel Island in San Francisco Bay opens as the major station for as many as 175,000 Chinese and 60,000 Japanese immigrants between 1910 and 1940.
  • 1913, California bans Japanese immigrants ("Issei") from purchasing land; land is purchased instead in the names of U.S. born children ("Nissei") who are citizens
  • 1918, Bhagat Singh Thind first Asian to be recruited by US Army.[citation needed]
  • 1924, United States Immigration Act of 1924 (Oriental Exclusion Act) banned most immigration from Asia. The quota for most Asian countries is zero. Public opinion in Japan is outraged by the insult.
  • 1927, in the infamous case of Lum v. Rice the Supreme Court found that states possess the right to define a Chinese student as non-white for the purpose of segregating them in public schools.[12][13][14]
  • 1930, Anti-Filipino riot occurred in Watsonville, California.[15]
  • 1933, Filipinos are ruled ineligible for citizenship barring immigration. Roldan v. Los Angeles County found that existing California anti-miscegenation laws did not bar Filipino-white marriages, but the state quickly moved to amend the law and made it so that Filipinos could no longer marry White people.[16][17]
  • 1935, Tydings-McDuffie Act gives "Commonwealth" status to the Philippines hence allowing immigration of Filipinos; Philippines independence is scheduled for 1946

1941-1999

  • 1941, Japanese navy attacks Pearl Harbor; FBI arrests pro-Japanese community leaders in Hawaii and U.S.
  • 1941, Japanese army invades Philippines; Japanese residents support the invaders
  • 1941-45 Filipino resistance movement, working closely with U.S. Army, fights the Japanese invaders
  • 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs Executive Order 9066 on February 19, uprooting 100,000 people of Japanese birth or descent on the west coast to be sent to Internment camps; similar actions take place in Canada.
  • 1943, Japanese soldiers from Hawaiʻi join the U.S. Army 100th Battalion arrive in Europe.
  • 1944, U.S. Army 100th Battalion merges with the all-volunteer Asian Americans of Japanese descent 442nd Regimental Combat Team
  • 1945, 442nd Regimental Combat team awarded 18,143 decorations including 9,486 Purple Heart decorations becoming the highest decorated military unit in United States history
  • 1946, the Luce–Celler Act of 1946 grants naturalization opportunities to Filipino Americans and Indian Americans (which included present-day Pakistanis and Bangladeshis) and re-established immigration from the Indian subcontinent and the Philippines.
  • 1947, Wataru Misaka a Japanese American was the first player of color and first American of Asian descent and the first non-Caucasian person to play in the National Basketball Association (NBA), known then as the Basketball Association of America (BAA)[18] making him the person that broke the professional basketball color barrier the same year that Baseball player Jackie Robinson broke the broke the Baseball color barrier.
  • 1948, Olympic diver Sammy Lee became the first Asian American to win an Olympic gold medal for the United States.[19]
  • 1951, The Gallery of Madame Liu Tsong the first U.S. television series starring an Asian-American series lead was launched on the now defunct television network DuMont.[20] The lead actress of the series was Anna May Wong the first female Asian American movie star and the first Chinese American movie star.
  • 1956, Dalip Singh Saund (1899–1973) first Asian to be elected for Congress; he is a Sikh from California
  • 1962, Professional American Football player Roman Gabriel, was the first Asian-American to start as an NFL quarterback.
  • 1962, Daniel K. Inouye of Hawaiʻi elected for the US Senate; he wins reelection in 1968, 1974, 1980, 1986, 1992, 1998, 2004, and 2010
  • 1963, Rocky Fellers, a Filipino American boy band is first Asian American to hit Billboard 100."Killer Joe" reached No. 16 on the Billboard Hot 100 in April 1963, No. 1 in both New York and Los Angeles, CA.
  • 1964, Grace Lee Boggs author and social activist, met with Malcolm X and unsuccessfully attempted to convince him to run for the United States Senate.
  • 1965, Yuri Kochiyama human rights activist and Longtime friend to Malcolm X, on February 21, 1965 the day of his X's assassination, at the Audubon Ballroom in Harlem, she ran to him after he was shot and held him in her arms as he lay dying.
  • 1965, Patsy T. Mink of Hawaiʻi becomes the first woman of color elected to Congress.
  • 1965, John Wing serves as Mississippi's first Chinese American mayor; he serves as mayor of Jonestown, Mississippi, through 1973.[21]
  • 1965, Luck Wing serves four terms as the Mayor of Sledge, Mississippi population 600. Wing served as mayor and significantly changed the Chinese American experience in the Mississippi Delta.[22]
  • 1966, a group of mostly Filipino farm workers go on strike against growers of table grapes in California a strike which became known as the famous Delano grape strike they were led by the famous Asian American activists and labor organizers Philip Vera Cruz and Larry Itliong.
  • 1970s-1980's, Asians Americans created their own distinct genre of music Asian-American jazz and launched a musical movement based around it.
  • 1971, Norman Y. Mineta elected mayor of San Jose, California; becomes first Asian American mayor of a major US city; Herbert Choy nominated supreme court justice.
  • 1972, Patsy Mink co-authors and sponsors the Title IX Amendment of the Higher Education Act and gets it effectively passed on June 23 the act was for the prohibition of gender discrimination in the U.S. education system or other federally funded institutions.
  • 1974, George R. Ariyoshi elected governor of Hawaiʻi
  • 1976, Samuel Ichiye (S. I.) Hayakawa of California and Spark Matsunaga of Hawaiʻi elected as US Senators
  • 1978, Ellison S. Onizuka becomes the first Asian American astronaut
  • 1980, Congress creates Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians to investigate internment of Japanese Americans; in 1983 it reports Japanese American internment was not a national security necessity
  • 1982, Vincent Chin, a Chinese American, was beaten to death in Highland Park, Michigan near Detroit his murder became a rally point for Asian Americans. Vincent Chin's murder is often considered the beginning of a pan-ethnic Asian American movement.
  • 1988, President Ronald Reagan signs Civil Liberties Act of 1988 apologizing for Japanese American internment and provide reparations of $20,000 to each victim
  • 1992, Eugene Chung is a former American football offensive lineman who played in the National Football League from 1992 to 1997.
  • 1992, Hae Jong Kim elected Bishop of United Methodist Church; Paull Shin elected for Washington State Senate;LA Riots of April 1992.
  • 1996, Gary Locke is elected governor of Washington state. When he was elected in 1995 Locke became the first—and to date the only—Chinese American to serve as the governor of a state, holding the post for two terms.
  • 1999, Gen. Eric Shinseki becomes the first Asian American U.S. Army chief of staff.
  • 1999, David Wu is elected as Congressman for Oregon 1st District

21st century

  • 2000, Norman Y. Mineta. Democratic Congressman, appointed by President Bill Clinton as the first Asian American appointed to the U.S. Cabinet; worked as Commerce Secretary (2000–2001), Transportation Secretary (2001–2006).
  • 2000, Angela Perez Baraquio became the first Asian American, first Filipino American, and first teacher ever to have been crowned Miss America.
  • 2001, Elaine Chao was appointed by President George W. Bush as the Secretary of Labor, serving to 2009. She is the first Asian American woman to serve in the Cabinet.
  • 2002, less than a month after the death of Rep. Patsy Mink, Congress passed a resolution to rename Title IX the "Patsy Takemoto Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act.
  • 2003, Ignatius C. Wang is an American bishop of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Auxiliary Bishop of the Archdiocese of San Francisco from 2002 to 2009.
  • 2008, Cung Le, first Asian American to win a major mma title by defeating Frank Shamrock via TKO in Strikeforce
  • 2008, Tim Lincecum, a starting pitcher for the San Francisco Giants, is selected as an All Star for the Major League All Star Game. Lincecum, who is half-Filipino, also won the Cy Young award as the most successful pitcher in the National League in 2008. Lincecum is the first Asian American to be selected as the Cy Young winner. Lincecum also won the Cy Young again in 2009 and led the Giants to a World Series victory in 2010.
  • 2009, Steven Chu, co-winner of the 1997 Nobel Prize for Physics, is sworn in as U.S. Secretary of Energy—thereby becoming the first person appointed to the US Cabinet after having won a Nobel Prize.[23] He is also the second Chinese American to become a member of Cabinet (after Elaine Chao.) [24]
  • 2009, Joseph Cao, a Republican, elected U.S. Representative for Louisiana's 2nd congressional district; he was defeated for reelection in 2010
  • 2009, Gary Locke is appointed by President Obama to serve as the Secretary of Commerce.
  • 2009, Dr. Jim Yong Kim is appointed as President of Dartmouth College, becoming the first Asian American president of an Ivy League School.
  • 2010, Immigration from Asia surpassed immigration from Latin America.[25] Many of these immigrants are recruited by American companies from college campuses in India, China, and South Korea.[26]
  • 2010, Daniel Inouye is sworn in as President Pro Tempore making him the highest-ranking Asian-American politician in American history.
  • 2010, Far East Movement is the second Asian American band to top the Billboard 100, second only to Rocky Fellers with its song "Like a G6". The song was number one on two separate weeks in November 2010.
  • 2010, Jeremy Lin is the first American-born Taiwanese to become an NBA player. Lin was a star basketball player for Harvard University and excelled at NBA pre-draft camps. Lin is currently a player for the Los Angeles Lakers.
  • 2010, Jean Quan is elected as Mayor of Oakland, California. Quan is the first Asian American woman elected mayor of a major American city. Quan is Oakland's first Asian American mayor.[27]
  • 2010, Ed Lee is appointed as Mayor of San Francisco, California.[27]
  • 2011, Gary Locke accepts nominatation by President Obama to serve as U.S. Ambassador to the People's Republic of China.[28]
  • 2013, Nina Davuluri became the second Asian American and first Indian American to be crowned as Miss America. She is the second Asian American following Angela Perez Baraquio in 2000.

See also

Further reading

Reference books

  • Chen, Edith Wen-Chu, and Grace J. Yoo, eds. Encyclopedia of Asian American Issues Today (2 vol, 2009) excerpt and text search
  • Huang, Guiyou, ed. The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature (3 vol. 2008) excerpt and text search
  • Japanese American National Museum. Encyclopedia of Japanese American History: An A-To-Z Reference from 1868 to the Present (2nd ed. 2000)
  • Kim, Hyung-Chan, ed. Dictionary of Asian American History (1986) 629pp; online edition
  • Lee, Jonathan H.X. and Kathleen M. Nadeau, eds. Encyclopedia of Asian American Folklore and Folklife (3 vol. 2010)
  • Ng, Franklin. The Asian American Encyclopedia (6 vol., 1995)
  • Oh, Seiwoong, ed.. Encyclopedia of Asian-American Literature (2007)
  • Schultz, Jeffrey D., et al. eds. Encyclopedia of Minorities in American Politics: Volume 1: African Americans and Asian Americans (2000) excerpt and text search

Surveys by scholars

  • Barth Gunther. Bitter Strength: A History of the Chinese in the United States, 1850–1870 (1964).
  • Chan, Sucheng. Asian Americans: An Interpretive History (1991)
  • Fuchs, Lawrence H. Hawaii Pono: An Ethnic and Political History (1997)
  • Okihiro, Gary Y. The Columbia Guide to Asian American History (2001) online edition
  • Takaki, Ronald. Pau Hana: Plantation Life and Labor in Hawaii, 1835–1920 (1983)

Historiography

  • Chan, Sucheng. "The changing contours of Asian-American historiography," Rethinking History, March 2007, Vol. 11 Issue 1, pp. 125–147,
  • Chan, Sucheng. "Asian American historiography," Pacific Historical Review, Aug 1996, Vol. 65#3 pp. 363–99
  • Espiritu, Augusto. "Transnationalism and Filipino American Historiography," Journal of Asian American Studies, June 2008, Vol. 11#2 pp. 171–184,
  • Friday, Chris. "Asian American Labor and Historical Interpretation," Labor History, Fall 1994, Vol. 35#4 pp. 524–546,
  • Gregory, Peter N. "Describing the Elephant: Buddhism in American," Religion and American Culture, Summer 2001, Vol. 11#2 pp. 233–63
  • Kim, Lili M. "Doing Korean American History in the Twenty-First Century," Journal of Asian American Studies, June 2008, Vol. 11@2 pp 199–209
  • Lai, Him Mark. "Chinese American Studies: A Historical Survey," Chinese America: History and Perspectives, 1995, pp. 11–29
  • Lee, Erika, "Orientalisms in the Americas: A Hemispheric Approach to Asian American History," Journal of Asian American Studies vol 8#3 (2005) pp 235–256. Notes that 30-40% of the Chinese and Japanese immigrants before 1941 went to Latin America, especially Brazil, and many others went to Canada.
  • Ngai, Mae M. "Asian American History--Reflections on the De-centering of the Field," Journal of American Ethnic History, Summer 2006, Vol. 25#4 pp 97–108
  • Okihiro, Gary Y. The Columbia Guide to Asian American History (2001) excerpt and text search
  • Okihiro, Gary Y. Common Ground: Reimagining American History (2001) excerpt and text search
  • Tamura, Eillen H. "Historiographical Essay," History of Education Quarterly, Spring 2001, Vol. 41#1 pp. 58–71
  • Tamura, Eillen H. "Using the Past to Inform the Future: An Historiography of Hawaii's Asian and Pacific Islanders," Amerasia Journal, 2000, Vol. 26#1 pp. 55–85

References

Filipino American Faith in Action
Joaquin Gonzalez (2009)
Filipinos are now the second largest Asian American immigrant group in the United States, with a population larger than Japanese Americans and Korean Americans combined. Surprisingly, there is little published on Filipino Americans and their religion, or the ways in which their religious traditions may influence the broader culture in which they are becoming established.Filipino American Faith in Action draws on interviews, survey data, and participant observation to shed light on this large immigrant community. It explores Filipino American religious institutions as essential locations for empowerment and civic engagement, illuminating how Filipino spiritual experiences can offer a lens for viewing this migrant community's social, political, economic, and cultural integration into American life. Gonzalez examines Filipino American church involvement and religious practices in the San Francisco Bay Area and in the Phillipines, showing how Filipino Americans maintain community and ethnic and religious networks, contra assimilation theory, and how they go about sharing their traditions with the larger society. In this academic page turner Gonzalez blends rich ethnographic descriptions with theoretical sophistication.Filipino American Faith in Action is THE book on the importance of religion for the Filipino migrant community. Gonzalez breaks new ground in the emerging field of religion and immigration with his use of diverse theoretical tools and compelling narratives. A must read.  Lois Ann Lorentzen, author of The Gendered New World Order: Militarism, the Environment and Development The missionized  and  ;diasporized  Christians of the global South are here in our midst .transforming the social, religious, and political landscape in places they are finding receptive soils, and . challenging us to think and act in new ways. Gonzalez's work speaks of this reality not in abstraction, but through the breathing stories of Filipino diaspora Christian communities in San Francisco, California. Finally, a book that I have been waiting for has arrived.   Eleazar S. Fernandez, Professor of Constructive Theology, United Theological Seminary of the Twin Cities, Minnesota Breaks new ground in Asian American Studies and more broadly in migration studies by illustrating the transnational and intergenerational civic engagement of migrants through religion. An eminently important study that expands our knowledge of Filipino migrant settlement in the United States. Rhacel Salazar Parrenas, author of The Force of Domesticity: Filipina Migrants and Globalization
Filipino American Faith in Action
Joaquin Gonzalez (2009)
Filipinos are now the second largest Asian American immigrant group in the United States, with a population larger than Japanese Americans and Korean Americans combined. Surprisingly, there is little published on Filipino Americans and their religion, or the ways in which their religious traditions may influence the broader culture in which they are becoming established.Filipino American Faith in Action draws on interviews, survey data, and participant observation to shed light on this large immigrant community. It explores Filipino American religious institutions as essential locations for empowerment and civic engagement, illuminating how Filipino spiritual experiences can offer a lens for viewing this migrant community's social, political, economic, and cultural integration into American life. Gonzalez examines Filipino American church involvement and religious practices in the San Francisco Bay Area and in the Phillipines, showing how Filipino Americans maintain community and ethnic and religious networks, contra assimilation theory, and how they go about sharing their traditions with the larger society. In this academic page turner Gonzalez blends rich ethnographic descriptions with theoretical sophistication.Filipino American Faith in Action is THE book on the importance of religion for the Filipino migrant community. Gonzalez breaks new ground in the emerging field of religion and immigration with his use of diverse theoretical tools and compelling narratives. A must read.  Lois Ann Lorentzen, author of The Gendered New World Order: Militarism, the Environment and Development The missionized  and  ;diasporized  Christians of the global South are here in our midst .transforming the social, religious, and political landscape in places they are finding receptive soils, and . challenging us to think and act in new ways. Gonzalez's work speaks of this reality not in abstraction, but through the breathing stories of Filipino diaspora Christian communities in San Francisco, California. Finally, a book that I have been waiting for has arrived.   Eleazar S. Fernandez, Professor of Constructive Theology, United Theological Seminary of the Twin Cities, Minnesota Breaks new ground in Asian American Studies and more broadly in migration studies by illustrating the transnational and intergenerational civic engagement of migrants through religion. An eminently important study that expands our knowledge of Filipino migrant settlement in the United States. Rhacel Salazar Parrenas, author of The Force of Domesticity: Filipina Migrants and Globalization
  1. ^ Paul Spickard, "Whither the Asian American Coalition?" Pacific Historical Review, Nov 2007, Vol. 76 Issue 4, pp 585-604
  2. ^ Dorothy Fujita-Rony, "Water and Land: Asian Americans and the U.S. West," Pacific Historical Review, Nov 2007, Vol. 76 Issue 4, pp 563–574,
  3. ^ Lee (2005)
  4. ^ Alexander Saxton, Indispensable Enemy: Labor and the Anti-Chinese Movement in California (1971)
  5. ^ Hyung-Chan Kim, ed. Dictionary of Asian American History (1986); Franklin Ng, The Asian American Encyclopedia (6 vol., 1995)
  6. ^ "Historic Site, During the Manila". Michael L. Baird. Retrieved 5 April 2009. 
  7. ^ Eloisa Gomez Borah (1997). "Chronology of Filipinos in America Pre-1989". Anderson School of Management. University of California, Los Angeles. Retrieved 25 February 2012. 
    Gonzalez, Joaquin (2009). Filipino American Faith in Action: Immigration, Religion, and Civic Engagement. NYU Press. pp. 21–22. ISBN 9780814732977. Retrieved 11 May 2013. 
    Jackson, Yo, ed. (2006). Encyclopedia of Multicultural Psychology. SAGE. p. 216. ISBN 9781412909488. Retrieved 11 May 2013. 
    Juan Jr., E. San (2009). "Emergency Signals from the Shipwreck". Toward Filipino Self-Determination. SUNY series in global modernity. SUNY Press. pp. 101–102. ISBN 9781438427379. Retrieved 11 May 2013. 
  8. ^ Gonzalez, Joaquin (2009). Filipino American Faith in Action: Immigration, Religion, and Civic Engagement. NYU Press. p. 21. ISBN 9780814732977. Retrieved 13 May 2013. 
    "Asian Heritage in the National Park Service Cultural Resources Programs". Cultural Resources Outreach and Diversity. National Park Service. Retrieved 13 May 2013. "Point Reyes National Seashore (Point Reyes, Marin County) was where the Spanish ship, the San Agustin, shipwrecked in 1595 with Filipino sailors aboard. The surviving crew eventually traveled by land to Mexico." 
    Hank Pellissier (17 July 2010). "Halo-Halo". New York Times. Retrieved 13 May 2013. 
    Carl Notle (14 November 1995). "400th Anniversary Of Spanish Shipwreck / Rough first landing in Bay Area". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 13 May 2013. 
  9. ^ Martha W. McCartney; Lorena S. Walsh; Ywone Edwards-Ingram; Andrew J. Butts; Beresford Callum (2003). "A Study of the Africans and African Americans on Jamestown Island and at Green Spring, 1619-1803". Historic Jamestowne. National Park Service. Retrieved 13 May 2013. "A month later, George Menefie, who by 1624 had patented Study Unit 4 Tract L Lot F upon the waterfront and in 1640 patented Study Unit 1 Tract D Lot C on the Back Street, used “Tony, an East Indian” as a headright. (p. 52)
    Slaves, Tony, an East Indian and Africans brought out of England (p.238)"
     
    Francis C.Assisi (16 May 2007). "Indian Slaves in Colonial America". India Currents. Retrieved 11 May 2013. 
  10. ^ See "Filipino Migration to the United States"
  11. ^ "Banana: A Chinese American Experience". Retrieved 8 May 2008. 
  12. ^ Payne, Charles (1984). "Multicultural Education and Racism in American Schools". Multicultural Education and Racism in American Schools 23 (2): 124–131. doi:10.1080/00405848409543102. 
  13. ^ Payne, Charles (1984). "Theory into Practice". Theory into Practice. 
  14. ^ "BROWN V. BOARD: Timeline of School Integration in the U.S.". Teaching Tolerance. 2004. Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  15. ^ See "Racial Riots"
  16. ^ Min, Pyong-Gap (2006), Asian Americans: contemporary trneds and issues, Pine Forge Press, p. 189, ISBN 978-1-4129-0556-5 
  17. ^ Irving G. Tragen (September 1944), Statutory Prohibitions against Interracial Marriage, California Law Review 32 (3): 269–280, doi:10.2307/3476961 , citing Cal. Stats. 1933, p. 561.
  18. ^ Vecsey, George (August 11, 2009). "Pioneering Knick Returns to Garden". The New York Times. p. B-9. Retrieved 28 October 2010. "He lasted just three games, but is remembered as the first non-Caucasian player in modern professional basketball, three years before African-Americans were included." 
  19. ^ Steve Almasy: After 60 years, Olympians are fast friends again, CNN.com, 22 Aug 2008
  20. ^ "Film reveals real-life struggles of an onscreen 'Dragon Lady'." January 3, 2008. Retrieved: January 27, 2010.
  21. ^ "Center for Oral History and Cultural Heritage | The University of Southern Mississippi". usm.edu. Retrieved 23 May 2014. 
  22. ^ Dunbar, A.P. (1990). Delta Time: A Journey Through Mississippi. Pantheon Books. ISBN 9780394571638. 
  23. ^ Jake Tapper (2008-12-11). "A Nobel Prize Winner in the Cabinet". ABC News.
  24. ^ Mei Fong, Kersten Zhang and Gao Sen (2009-02-26). "Commerce Nominee a Locke In China". The Wall Street Journal.
  25. ^ "New Asian Immigrants To US Now Surpass Hispanics". CBSDC. 19 June 2012. Retrieved 19 June 2012. 
  26. ^ Mark Guarino (19 June 2012). "How Asians displaced Hispanics as biggest group of new US immigrants". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 21 June 2012. "In order to better compete on the global market, American companies are recruiting heavily on college campuses and abroad, primarily in India, China, and South Korea." 
  27. ^ a b Heather Knight (21 February 2011). "Ed Lee and Jean Quan: mayors and longtime friends". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 23 February 2011. 
  28. ^ Nagesh, Gautham (August 1, 2011). "Commerce Secretary Gary Locke resigns to become Ambassador to China". The Hill.
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