.
Want Wikipedia to look like this?   
Click here to upgrade your Wikipedia experience
Hadera | QuickiWiki

Hadera

  EN

Overview

Hadera, Israel
Hebrew transcription(s)
 • Hebrew חֲדֵרָה
 • ISO 259 Ḥdera
Official logo of Hadera, Israel
Logo
Hadera, Israel is located in Israel
Hadera, Israel
Hadera, Israel
Coordinates: 32°27′N 34°55′E / 32.450°N 34.917°E / 32.450; 34.917Coordinates: 32°27′N 34°55′E / 32.450°N 34.917°E / 32.450; 34.917
District Haifa
Founded 1890
Government
 • Type City (from 1952)
 • Mayor Tzvika Gendelman
Area
 • Total 53,000 dunams (53 km2 or 20 sq mi)
Population (2013)[1]
 • Total 91,634
Website www.hadera.muni.il


Hadera - Giv'at Olga - Hadera
Hadera - Giv'at Olga

Hadera (Hebrew: חֲדֵרָה Ḥadera ) is a city located in the Haifa District of northern Israel approximately 45 kilometers (28 miles) from the major cities of Tel Aviv and Haifa. The city is located along 7 km (5 mi) of the Israeli Mediterranean Coastal Plain. The city has a population of about 91,634, which includes a high proportion of immigrants arriving since 1990, notably from Ethiopia and the former Soviet Union.[1]

Hadera was established in 1891 as a farming colony by members of the Zionist group, Hovevei Zion, from Lithuania and Latvia. By 1948, it was a regional center with a population of 11,800. In 1952, Hadera was declared a city, with jurisdiction over an area of 53,000 dunams.[2]

History

Early years

Jewish school in Hadera, 1931 - Hadera
Jewish school in Hadera, 1931

Hadera was founded in 1891, in the early days modern Zionism by Jewish immigrants from Lithuania and Latvia on land purchased by Yehoshua Hankin, known as the Redeemer of the Valley.[2][3] The land was purchased from a Christian effendi, Selim Khuri. This was the largest purchase of land in Eretz Israel by a Zionist group, although the land was of low quality and mostly swampland. The only inhabitants prior to the purchase were a few families raising water buffaloes and selling reeds.[4] The town may derive its name from the Arabic word khadra, meaning "green" in reference to the wild weeds which covered the marshes on which the town is built.[3]

The first settlers lived in a house known as the Khan near Hadera's main synagogue.[5] Initially, Hadera was a lonely outpost of 10 families and 4 guards. In its early years, however, the town had issues with land ownership having drained the swamps with the aid of Egyptian workers sent to them by Baron Edmond de Rothschild.[6]

Old tombstones in the local cemetery reveal that out of a population of 540, 210 died of malaria.[7] Relations between the residents of Hadera and neighboring Bedouins were poor and HaShomer organization was assigned to guarding the fields. By the early twentieth century, the town had become a regional economic center.[2] Land disputes in the area were resolved by the 1930s, by which time, the population had grown to 2,002 in 1931.[3][4] Free schooling was introduced in the city in 1937 in all schools apart from the Histadrut school.[8]

After 1948

Hadera's Great Synagogue - Hadera
Hadera's Great Synagogue

Hadera's population began to grow dramatically after Israeli independence in 1948 as immigrants flocked to the country. Among the immigrants to the city were Russian and other European immigrants and also 40 Yemenite families.[7] In 1964, Hadera was declared a city,[2] and in 1953, Israel's first paper mill opened in the city. Sponsored by investors from within Israel as well as from the United States, Brazil, and Australia, the mill was designed to meet all of Israel's paper needs.[9] It was also at this time that the Givat Olga neighborhood was constructed on the coast, and Beit Eliezer in the east of the city.[2]

From the 1990s

The city grew dramatically during the 1990s as it absorbed large numbers of Russian and Ethiopian immigrants.[2][3] Hadera, considered a safe place by its inhabitants, was jolted by several acts of terrorism, including a massacre of six civilians at a Bat Mitzvah[10] and a suicide bomber who blew himself up at a falafel stand on October 26, 2005, killing seven civilians,[11][12] and 55 were injured, of them five in severe condition.[13] In addition, four civilians were killed when a terrorist opened fire on pedestrians at a bus stop on October 28, 2001.[14] However, since the construction of the nearby West Bank barrier, the frequency of such incidents has dropped drastically. On August 4, 2006, three rockets fired by Hezbollah hit Hadera. Hadera is 50 miles (80 km) south of the Lebanese border and marked the farthest point inside Israel hit by Hezbollah.[15]

Hadera has traditionally been known as a backwater. However, in the 2000s, several projects were launched to improve the quality of life in Hadera. The city center was regenerated, a high-tech business park was constructed, and the world's largest desalination plant was built.[2][16] In addition, the city has slowly but steadily attracted new home-buyers. Currently, a development plan is underway to turn Hadera into a major center of home ownership, business, and vacation. Some 18,000 new homes will be built, including 2,500 villas and cottages and 1,300 luxury apartments on the coast. These housing units will be built in new neighborhoods that will be built in the underdeveloped northeastern part of the city, and 2.5 km (1.6 mi) of the coastline will be developed. A large park and several major shopping malls will be built. Ten new hotels with a total of 1,800 rooms will also be built; the city is planned to become a future vacation destination due to its closeness to the Galilee, beaches, and access to major highways.[17]

Geography

Hadera municipality - Hadera
Hadera municipality

Hadera is located on the Israeli Mediterranean coastal plain, 45 km (28 mi) north of Tel Aviv.[18] The city's jurisdiction covers 53,000 dunams (53.0 km2; 20.5 sq mi), making it the fourth largest city in the country. Nahal Hadera Park, a eucalyptus forest covering 1,300 dunams (1.3 km2; 0.5 sq mi) and Hasharon Park are located on the outskirts of Hadera.[2]

Transportation

Hadera lies along two main Israel Railways lines: the Coastal Line and the nowadays freight-only Eastern Line. The city's railway station is located in the west of the city and is on the Tel Aviv suburban line which runs between Binyamina and Ashkelon. The city center of Hadera is located near Israel's two main north-south highways; Highway 2, linking Tel Aviv to Haifa, and Highway 4.[2] This made Hadera an important junction for all coastal bus transportation after 1948 and into the 1950s.

Economy

Orot Rabin chimneys - Hadera
Orot Rabin chimneys

Hadera's importance as an economic center was first recognised when Israel's first paper mill was opened here in 1953. Hadera Paper continues to be a large employer in the city. In December 2009 the world's largest desalination plant of its type,[19] located within the municipal borders, was inaugurated.[2] Hadera is the location of the Orot Rabin Power Plant, Israel's largest power station.[20]

Demographics

According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, as of October 2013, Hadera had a population of 91,634 which is growing at an annual rate of 1.2%.[1] As of 2003, the city had a population density of 1,516.6 per km2.[21] Of the city's population of 2013 of 91,634, approximately 23,407 were immigrants, many from Ethiopia.[21]

Hadera has grown steadily since 1948, when the city had a population of 11,800. In 1955, the population almost doubled to 22,500. In 1961 it rose to 25,600, 1972 to 32,200, and 1983, to 38,700.[21]

The median age in Hadera is 32.8, with 23,200 people 19 years of age or younger, 12.1% between 20 and 29, 14,100 between 30 and 44, 17,600 from 45 to 64, and 9,700, 65 or older.[22] As of 2007, there were 37,500 males and 39,200 females.[22]

In 2001, the ethnic makeup was 99.2% Jewish and other non-Arab, with no significant Arab population. In 2000, there were 27,920 salaried workers and 1,819 self-employed. The mean monthly wage in 2000 for a salaried worker was ILS 5,135, a real change of 8.0% over the course of 2000. Salaried males had a mean monthly wage of ILS 6,607 (a real change of 9.0%) compared with ILS 3,598 for females (a real change of 3.1%). The mean income for the self-employed was 6,584. A total of 1,752 people received unemployment benefits and 6,753 received income supplements.

Education

Technoda science and technology center - Hadera
Technoda science and technology center
Hillel Yaffe Medical Center - Hadera
Hillel Yaffe Medical Center

In 2001, there were 15,622 students studying at 42 schools (24 elementary schools with 7,933 students, and 21 high schools with 7,689 students). A total of 57.5% of 12th graders were entitled to a matriculation certificate.

The Democratic School of Hadera, which opened in 1987, was the first of its kind in Israel. The Technoda, an educational center for science and technology equipped with a state-of-the-art telescope and planetarium, is located in Hadera's Givat Olga neighborhood.[23]

Medical facilities

Hadera is served by the Hillel Yaffe Medical Center.

Neighborhoods

Neighborhoods of Hadera include Givat Olga,[24] Beit Eliezer, Kfar Brandeis, Haotzar, Hephzibah, Neve Haim, Nissan, Ephraim, Bilu, Nahaliel, Shimshon, Shlomo, Pe'er, Bialik, Beitar and The Park.

Sports

Hadera is home to four current football clubs: Hapoel Hadera, F.C. Givat Olga (both playing in Liga Alef North), Beitar Hadera (playing in Liga Gimel Shomron) and the women's football club Maccabi Kishronot Hadera (playing in Ligat Nashim Rishona). In the past the city was also home to Maccabi Hadera, Hapoel Nahliel and Hapoel Beit Eliezer.

The city is also represented in the Israeli Beach Soccer League. Its team, Hapoel Hadera, won the championship (under its previous name, Hadera's Princes) in 2008.[25]

In Basketball, Maccabi Hadera's women's basketball team plays in second tier Liga Leumit, while the club's Maccabi Hadera men's basketball team plays in third tier Liga Artzit.

Notable residents

Twin towns — Sister cities

References

The Claim of Dispossession: Jewish Land-Settlement and the Arabs, 1878-1948
Arieh L. Avneri (1982)
This study sheds new light on the historic background of the contemporary Palestinian problem. Avneri traces the spread of Jewish settlements over the seventy-year period before the establishment of the State of Israel, in order to see how it affected the existing Arab community's economy and social and cultural institutions. He demonstrates that there is no historical evidence for the eviction of the Palestinians from Israel previous to the founding of the state. Most of those who left afterwards did so on their own volition.
The Rough Guide to Israel & the Palestinian Territories 2 (Rough Guide Travel Guides)
Daniel Jacobs (1998)
Coverage ranges from the Mediterranean beaches and the Negev Desert to the snowy slopes of Mount Herman, and includes detailed city coverage of Jerusalem and all its Jewish, Islamic, and Christian monuments. of color photos. 45 maps.
Footprint Israel Handbook
Sean Sheehan:::Dave Winter:::Patricia M. Levy (2001)
Israel has a range and diversity of attractions. Over 6000 years of history and archaeology is packaged and presented at a variety of sites. This guidebook has up-to-date practical information for all visitors from back packers to pilgrims, and includes historical details and cultural and background information. All Israel's attractions are covered from diving in the Red Sea to skiing on Mount Hermon. The guidebook includes details on: all Pilgrim sites; where to stay, from guest houses in Galilee, to resort hotels on the coast, city hotels and hostels; how to get about; how to plan a visit to make most of the time available; and where to eat, drink and find the nightlife. Fully indexed colour maps and over 300 city and site plans are included.
  1. ^ a b c "Table 3 - Population of Localities Numbering Above 2,000 Residents". Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 2010-06-30. Retrieved 2010-10-30. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "New Urbanism, Israeli Style". Haaretz. Retrieved 2008-11-28. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Hadera". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 2008-10-25. 
  4. ^ a b Avneri, Aryeh L. (1984). The Claim of Dispossession: Jewish Land-Settlement and the Arabs, 1878-1948. Transaction Publishers. p. 93. ISBN 0-87855-964-7. Retrieved 2008-10-25. 
  5. ^ Jacobs, Daniel; Eber, Shirley; Silvani, Fransesca (1998). Israel and the Palestinian Territories: The Rough Guide. Rough Guides. ISBN 1-85828-248-9. Retrieved 2008-10-25. 
  6. ^ Gilbert, Martin (1998). Israel, a History. Morrow. p. 9. ISBN 0-688-12362-7. 
  7. ^ a b Winter, Dave (1999). Israel Handbook. Footprint Travel Guides. p. 532. ISBN 1-900949-48-2. Retrieved 2008-10-25. 
  8. ^ Sternhell, Zeev (1999). The Founding Myths of Israel: Nationalism, Socialism, and the Making of the Jewish State. Princeton University Press. p. 255. ISBN 0-691-00967-8. Retrieved 2008-10-25. 
  9. ^ "First Paper Mill Opened in Israel; Plant at Hadera is Expected to Help Nation Cut Currency Gap $1,000,000 a Year". New York Times. 1953-12-18. Retrieved 2008-10-25. 
  10. ^ Bat mitzvah massacre in Israel leaves seven dead, Phil Reeves, 18 January 2002
  11. ^ Larisa Gerashchenko
  12. ^ Woman injured in Hadera terror attack dies 4 years later
  13. ^ Suicide bomber rocks Hadera market - Haaretz Daily Newspaper | Israel News
  14. ^ Victims of Palestinian Violence and Terrorism since September 2000
  15. ^ "For first time: Hizbullah targets Hadera area". Ynet News. 2006-08-04. Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  16. ^ Rabinovitch, Ari. "Israel opens largest desalination plant of its kind". Reuters. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  17. ^ No Longer a Backwater, Hadera Plans Big Push - Inside Israel - News - Israel National News
  18. ^ Telfed takes on next target: Hadera
  19. ^ Rinat, Zafrir (2008-04-02). "Where will the water go? - Haaretz Daily Newspaper | Israel News". Haaretz.com. Retrieved 2011-09-16. 
  20. ^ Paz, Shelly (2007-03-01). "Greenpeace protests at Hadera power plant | Israel | Jerusalem Post". Jpost.com. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  21. ^ a b c "Population and Density per Km² in Localities Numbering Above 5,000 Residents". 55th Statistical Yearbook. Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 2003. Retrieved 2008-03-15. 
  22. ^ a b "Statistical Abstract of Israel 2008". Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 2008-11-29. 
  23. ^ for the Stars
  24. ^ On Olga Hankin, for whom Givat Olga was named
  25. ^ Hadera's Princes are the Champions of Bank Yahav Beach Soccer League for the Year 2008 netanya.muni.il (Hebrew)
  26. ^ "Charlotte Sister Cities Worldwide - Hadera". Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
This page is based on data from Wikipedia (read/edit), Freebase, Amazon and YouTube under respective licenses.
Text is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.