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Gottschee

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Overview

For the town of Kočevje (German: Gottschee), see Kočevje.
The Gottschee region in Slovenia today: the current Municipality of Kočevje - Gottschee
The Gottschee region in Slovenia today: the current Municipality of Kočevje

Gottschee (Slovene: Kočevsko) refers to a former German-speaking region in Carniola, a crownland of the Habsburg Empire, part of the historical and traditional region of Lower Carniola, now in Slovenia. The region has been a county, duchy, district, and municipality during various parts of its history. The term often also refers to the entire ethnolinguistic enclave regardless of administrative borders.[1][2] Today Gottschee largely corresponds to the Municipality of Kočevje. The original German settlers of the region are called Gottschee Germans[3][4] or Gottscheers,[5] and their German dialect is called Gottschee German[6] or Gottscheerish.[7]

Geography

The Gottschee enclave encompassed a roughly oval-shaped area between 45° 46′ N and 45° 30′ N, and between 14° 36′ E and 15° 9′ E. Geographers divided the enclave into seven regions based on valleys (from west to east):[8][9][10][11]

  • The Suchen Plateau (Suchener Hochtal) in the extreme west, with the (pre-1933) municipalities of Obergras and Suchen;
  • The Back District (Hinterland) in the west, with the municipalities of Göttenitz, Hinterberg, Masern, Morobitz, Rieg, and Tiefenbach;
  • The Upper District (Oberland) in the central area, with the municipalities of Lienfeld, Mitterdorf, and Seele, plus the city of Gottschee (Stadt Gottschee);
  • The Lower District (Unterland) in the south-central area, with the municipalities of Graflinden, Mösel, Schwarzenbach, and Unterlag;
  • The Forest District (Walden) in the north-central area, with the municipalities of Altlag, Ebenthal, Langenton, and Malgern;
  • The Tschermoschnitz District (Moschnitze, Mosche) in the northeast, with the municipalities of Pöllandl, Stockendorf, and Tschermoschnitz;
  • The Lower Side (Untere Seite) in the southeast, with the municipalities of Nesseltal and Unterdeutschau.

History

Early history (13th century – 1623)

The Gottschee region was conferred upon the Counts of Ortenburg by the Patriarchate of Aquileia on 20 September 1277.[12]:280[Note 1] The territory was settled by German farmers from Carinthia and East Tyrol between 1330 and 1400. The first settlement in the territory attested in written sources was Mooswald (Slovene: Mahovnik), which appeared in a letter from Patriarch Bertram on 1 September 1339.[14][15] A 1363 letter mentioned the settlements of Gottschee (Kočevje), Pölland (Kočevske Poljane), Kostel, Ossilnitz (Osilnica), and Göttenitz (Gotenica).[16] The town of Gottschee acquired market town status in 1377.[17]

With the extinction of the House of Ortenburg in 1418,[18] the Gottschee area came under the control of the Counts of Celje in 1420.[12]:280 When the House of Celje died out in 1456, the territory was incorporated into the Duchy of Carniola under the control of the House of Habsburg. Emperor Frederick III elevated the town of Gottschee to a city in 1471.[17]

The late 15th century began a time of unrest in Gottschee. Numerous Ottoman attacks took place in the region (in 1469, 1471, 1476, 1480, 1491, 1507, 1528, 1546, 1559, 1561, 1564, 1578, and 1584).[19] It was partly in response to the devastation of the Ottoman raids that Emperor Frederick III granted the people of Gottschee the right to sell goods outside the territory in 1492. There were also six peasant uprisings in the territory, starting in 1515 and ending in 1662.[12]:281

In 1507 Maximilian I mortgaged the Dominion of Gottschee (German: Herrschaft Gottschee, Slovene: Kočevsko gospostvo) to Count Jörg von Thurn.[20] The territory was purchased by Hans Ungnad in 1524, and then mortgaged to the Croatian County of Blagay in 1547.[21] In 1574, Gottschee extended from Mount Snežnik in the extreme west to Blatnik pri Črmošnjicah in the east, and from Seč and Gornja Topla Reber in the north to just below Bosljiva Loka and Osilnica in the south.[22] In 1619 the territory was purchased by the Khisl family.[12]:281

Gottschee County (1623–1791)

The territory was elevated to Gottschee County (German: Grafschaft Gottschee, Slovene: Kočevska grofija) in 1623. In 1641 Wolf Engelbert von Auersperg purchased Gottschee County from Count Georg Zwickl-Khisl for 84,000 florins. Engelbert abandoned the deteriorating castle at Friedrichstein and built a new castle in the town of Gottschee itself, which survived until the Second World War. Because Gottschee was a county, Engelbert thereby became a count himself.[12]:281[23] In 1774 Emperor Joseph II issued a patent allowing the residents of Gottschee County to sell citrus fruit and oil, and the emperor issued a patent confirming peddling privileges on 27 April 1785.[12]:281

Duchy of Gottschee (1791–1809)

In 1791 Emperor Leopold II elevated the territory to the Duchy of Gottschee (German: Herzogtum Gottschee, Slovene: Kočevska Vojvodina) and Karl Josef Anton von Auersperg to the Duke of Gottschee.[12]:281

Illyrian Provinces (1809–1814)

During the short-lived period of the Illyrian Provinces, Gottschee was part of the Napoleonic French Empire. Under this arrangement it was initially part of the Province of Ljubljana (French: province de Laybach) from 1809 to 1811, and then the Province of Carniola (French: province de Carniole) from 1811 to 1814. Gottschee constituted a separate administrative canton under this arrangement.[24] The Gottscheers revolted against French rule during the 1809 Gottscheer Rebellion, killing the commissar of the Novo Mesto district, Von Gasparini.[25] With the collapse of the Illyrian provinces, Gottschee was returned to Habsburg rule within the Kingdom of Illyria.

Kingdom of Illyria (1816–1849)

Peter Kozler's 1848 Map of Slovene lands and provinces with Gottschee outlined - Gottschee
Peter Kozler's 1848 Map of Slovene lands and provinces with Gottschee outlined

As part of the Habsburg Kingdom of Illyria, Gottschee was administratively part of the Novo Mesto District (German: Neustädtler Kreis).[26] The Kingdom of Illyria was succeeded by the reconstituted Duchy of Carniola in 1849.

Duchy of Carniola (1849–1918)

The Gottschee District and ethnic composition in 1878 - Gottschee
The Gottschee District and ethnic composition in 1878

Within the Duchy of Carniola. a separate administrative Gottschee District (German: Bezirk Gottschee or Gerichtsbezirk Gottschee) was set up. The district had an area of approximately 860 km² and contained a total of 177 settlements (including ethnically Slovene ones and some abandoned before 1941).[27] The Gottschee District was bordered (clockwise) by the districts of Ribnica (Reifnitz), Žužemberk (Seisenberg), Novo Mesto (Rudolfswerth), Metlika (Mötling), and Črnomelj (Tschernembl). Fully German or ethically mixed Slovene-German territory extended into all of the neighboring districts.[12]:Table 16 On 31 December 1869 the entire Kočevje District had 3,473 houses and a population of 18,432. Subtracting the ethnically Slovene comminuties of Osilnica (Osiunitz) and Kostel left a total of 2,966 houses and a population of 15,520 in ethnically German or German-majority territory in the district itself. Adding in ethnically German houses and population from communities adjacent to the district resulted in a total of 4,161 houses and a population of 21,301 in the culturally German Gottschee area.[12]:275 Czörnig estimated the total Gottschee German population in 1878, accounting for population growth and men working away from home, to be about 25,000.[12]:276

Map of Aurel Popovici's proposal of a United States of Greater Austria (1906), with Gottschee as an autonomous district - Gottschee
Map of Aurel Popovici's proposal of a United States of Greater Austria (1906), with Gottschee as an autonomous district

In 1906 the ethnic Romanian Austro-Hungarian lawyer and politician Aurel Popovici unsuccessfully proposed the reorganization of Austria-Hungary as the United States of Greater Austria.[28] Popovici's proposal included Gottschee as a separate autonomous district within the proposed state of Carniola.

Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1918–1941)

Gottschee was incorporated into royal Yugoslavia (known as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes until 1929) as part of the prewar territory of Carniola. The Gottschee Germans accepted the new arrangement with some reluctance: in February 1918 Gottschee's ethnically German priests characterized the proposed new state as "treacherous" and sent a letter to Bishop Anton Bonaventura Jeglič in Ljubljana denouncing the plan.[29] In October 1918 a proposal was prepared for the Paris Peace Conference for Gottschee to become an independent republic (German: Republik Gottschee) under American protection, based on the large Gottschee German population in the United States,[30][31][32] and a Gottschee German demonstration demanding autonomy was held in New York in January 1919.[33] There were also unsuccessful proposals to establish a Gottschee Republic with Italian backing.[34] In 1920, the Slovene press characterized the proposal for a Gottschee Republic as communist agitation.[35]

Under the 1921 constitution, the traditional regions were abolished and Gottschee was made part of the Ljubljana Province (Slovene: Ljubljanska oblast) from 1922 to 1929. After the provinces were abolished, Gottschee was part of the larger Drava Banovina (Dravska banovina) from 1929 to 1941. Within the very large Kočevje District (Slovene: Srez Kočevje),[36] 22 local communities or small municipalities (občina) largely encompassed Gottschee territory until 1933, continuing its 19th-century organization. Many Gottschee settlements were outside the Kočevje District.[37] In 1933 a Yugoslav administrative reform created large municipalities (občina) organized within the districts (srez). The Kočevje District was the largest district in the Drava Banovina, extending from Veliki Ločnik in the north to the Croatian border in the south.[38] Gottschee territory was encompassed by 11 large municipalities, not all of which were in the Kočevje District.[39]

During this time, political and assimilatory pressure against the German minority caused many of Gottschee Germans to emigrate: the German-language high school was closed in 1918, German was eliminated as an elective subject in schools in 1925, the majority of German business, cultural, and athletics societies were dissolved, and there was forced Slovenization of the names of villages and people. By 1941 the Gottschee German population had fallen to only about 12,500.[18]

Second World War

After the outbreak of World War II in 1939, Yugoslavia initially remained neutral, but after a coup in 1941 adopted a staunch anti-Axis position. This led to a German and Italian invasion and occupation of the Kingdom. The Gottscheer were in the Italian occupation zone after Yugoslavia's surrender, which Hitler could not abide. Nazi racial policy dictated that these Germans had to be brought back into the Reich. The Nazis established a branch of the Resettlement Administration (Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle, or "VoMi") at Maribor for this purpose.

A map of the Italian-administered Province of Ljubljana, with the Gottchee German ethnic enclave highlighted in green. - Gottschee
A map of the Italian-administered Province of Ljubljana, with the Gottchee German ethnic enclave highlighted in green.

While some of the Gottscheer community leaders had embraced National Socialism and agitated for "assistance" and "repatriation" to the Reich before the German invasion in 1941, most Gottscheer had no interest in reuniting with Greater Germany or joining the Nazis.[40] They had been integrated into society with their Slovene neighbours, often intermarrying among Slovenes and becoming bilingual while maintaining their Germanic language and customs since their arrival in the region in the late 14th century.

However, propaganda and Nazi ideology prevailed, and the VoMi began planning the Gottschee "resettlement" (forced expulsion) from Kočevje, which was in the Italian occupation zone, to the "Ranner Dreieck" or Brežice Triangle in Lower Styria, the region now known as the Lower Sava Valley, located between the confluences of the Krka, Sotla, and Sava rivers.

In November 1941, some 46,000 Slovenians in the Brežice Triangle region were forcibly deported to Eastern Germany for potential Germanization or forced labour in order to make an accommodation for the Gottschee "resettlers". Shortly before that time, a largely transparent propaganda effort was aimed toward both the Gottscheer and the Slovenes, promising the latter equivalent farmland in Germany for the land relinquished. The Gottscheer were given Reich passports and transportation to the Lower Sava Valley just after the forced departure of the Slovenes. Most Gottschee left their homes because of coercion and threats since the VoMi had a deadline of December 31, 1941 for the mass movement of both groups. Though many Gottscheer did receive farmland and households, these were of lesser quality than their own,[citation needed] and many were in disarray from the hasty forced expulsion of the Slovenians[citation needed]. Gottscheers were removed from a total of 167 settlements in 1941 and 1942.[27]

The eviction was organized as a series of 25 resettlement groups (German: Stürme), numbered Go 1 through Go 25 and named after major settlements:[41][42]

Although from the time of their arrival to the end of the war, Gottschee farmers were harassed and killed by Josip Broz Tito's Partisans[citation needed], 56 of the Gottschee ethnic Germans, who did not want to leave their homes, decided instead to join Slovene Partisans and fight against Italians in Province of Ljubljana, together with their Slovene neighbours.[43][44]

The attempt to resettle the Gottscheer was a costly failure for the Nazi regime, since extra manpower was required to protect the farmers from the partisans.[citation needed] The deported Slovenes were taken to several camps in Saxony, where they were forced to work on German farms or in factories run by German industries from 1941 to 1945. The forced labourers were not always kept in formal concentration camps, but often just vacant buildings where they slept until the next day's labour took them outside these quarters. Toward the end of the war, these camps were liberated by American and Red Army troops, and repatriated refugees later returned to Yugoslavia.

The fate of the resettled Gottschee was not much better, and in some cases much worse. At the end of the war the Nazi regime in the region evaporated as soldiers and administrators fled.

Postwar Yugoslavia

After the war, the Gottschee area was partially resettled by Slovenians from various places, creating a mixed dialect area. Only a few hundred Gottscheers remained.

List of Gottschee German villages

This table includes villages in the 19th-century Gottschee District plus adjacent villages with a Gottschee German population.

Note: This table is sortable. Click next to any heading to sort by that heading.

Slovene[45] Municipality[46] German[45][47] Gottscheerish[47] District
19th c.[12]:Table 16
Municipality
19th c.[47]
Parish
19th c.[47]
Note
Ajbelj Kostel Aibel, Eibel Gottschee Fara Banjaloka
Ašelice Semič Aschletz Aschelitz Rudolfswerth Tschermoschnitz Tschermoschnitz Now part of Mašelj
Beli Kamen Kočevje Weißenstein Beißnstuain Gottschee Altlag Altlag Now part of Stari Log
Bistrica Crnomelj !Črnomelj Bistritz Bistritz Tschernembl Döblitsch Döblitsch
Blatnik pri Črmošnjicah Semič Rußbach Rüßpoch Rudolfswerth Tschermoschnitz Tschermoschnitz
Blaževica, Spodnja Blaževica Dolenjske Toplice Unterblaschowitz Untrplaschobitz Rudolfswerth Tschermoschnitz Tschermoschnitz Now part of Verdun pri Uršnih Selih
Borovec pri Kočevski Reki Kočevje Morobitz Mröbitz Gottschee Morobitz Morobitz
Breg pri Kočevju Kočevje Rein, Rain Roain Gottschee Mitterdorf Mitterdorf
Brezje Kočevje Friesach Gottschee Nesseltal Nesseltal See: Laze pri Oneku, Staro Brezje
Brezovica pri Črmošnjicah, Brezje Semič Wretzen, Wrezen Brezə Rudolfswerth Tschermoschnitz Tschermoschnitz
Brezovica pri Predgradu Kočevje Bresowitz Tschernembl Tscheplach Unterdeutschau
Bukova Gora Kočevje Buchberg Puəchparg Gottschee Nesseltal Nesseltal A collective name for Gorenja Bukova Gora, Spodnja Bukova Gora, and Srednja Bukova Gora
Cesta (pri Starem Logu) Kočevje Winkel Straßle Gottschee Altlag Altlag Now part of Pugled pri Starem Logu
Cink, Frata Dolenjske Toplice Zinken Rudolfswerth Pollandl !Pöllandl Pollandl !Pöllandl Now part of Podstenice
Crmosnjice !Črmošnjice Semič Tschermoschnitz Moscha, Moschnitz Rudolfswerth Tschermoschnitz Tschermoschnitz
Crni Potok !Črni Potok pri Kočevju Kočevje Schwarzenbach Schbourznpoch Gottschee Schwarzenbach Gottschee
Cvišlerji Kočevje Zwischlern Zwishlarə Gottschee Seele Gottschee
Deleči Vrh, Deleči Hrib, Daleč Vrh, Daleč Hrib Dolenjske Toplice Laubbüchel Lapiechl Rudolfswerth Pollandl !Pöllandl Pollandl !Pöllandl Now part of Podstenice
Divji Potok, Vildpoh Dolenjske Toplice Oberwildbach, Wildbach Bilpoch Rudolfswerth Tschermoschnitz Tschermoschnitz Now part of Nova Gora
Dolga Vas Kočevje Grafenfeld, Krapfenfeld Kropfnwold Gottschee Lienfeld Gottschee
Dolnja Briga Kočevje Niedertiefenbach Tiəmpoch, Tiəfmpoch[48] Gottschee Tiefenbach Morobitz
Dolnja Topla Reber Kočevje Unterwarmberg Üntrburmparg Seisenberg Langenton Unterwarmberg Now part of Topla Reber
Dolnje Ložine, Srednje Ložine, Spodnje Ložine Kočevje Niederloschin, Unterloschin Niedrloschin, Untrloschin Gottschee Mitterdorf Mitterdorf
Draga Kočevje Suchen Shuəchə Gottschee Morobitz Morobitz Now part of Borovec pri Kočevski Reki
Draga Loški Potok Suchen Shiugə Gottschee Suchen Suchen
Gaber pri Črmošnjicah Semič Gaber Gabər Rudolfswerth Tschermoschnitz Tschermoschnitz
Gace !Gače Semič Gatschen Gatschn Rudolfswerth Tschermoschnitz Tschermoschnitz Now part of Komarna Vas
Glažuta Loški Potok Karlshütten Gloschhittn Gottschee Obergras Suchen
Golobinjek Semič Taubenbrunn Taubndaf, Taubndoarf Gottschee Nesseltal Nesseltal Now part of Planina
Gorenja Bukova Gora Kočevje Oberbuchberg Gailoch Gottschee Nesseltal Nesseltal Now part of Bukova Gora
Gorenja Loka, Gorenja Nemška Loka Kočevje Oberdeutschau Tearöscht Gottschee Nesseltal Nesseltal Now part of Hrib pri Koprivniku
Gorenje Kočevje Obrern Öbrarə Gottschee Mitterdorf Mitterdorf
Gorenji Mačkovec Kočevje Oberkatzendorf Pinugl Gottschee Nesseltal Nesseltal Now part of Laze pri Oneku
Gornja Briga Kočevje Obertiefenbach Brigə Gottschee Tiefenbach Morobitz
Gornja Topla Reber Kočevje Oberwarmberg Öbrbourmparg Seisenberg Langenton Unterwarmberg Now part of Topla Reber
Gornje Ložine Kočevje Oberloschin Öbrloschin Gottschee Mitterdorf Mitterdorf
Gotenica Kočevje Gottenitz !Göttenitz Gənize Gottschee Gottenitz !Göttenitz Gottenitz !Göttenitz
Gradec Crnomelj !Črnomelj Grodetz, Groditz, Grodez Grodetz Gottschee Nesseltal Nesseltal Now part of Rožič Vrh
Grcarice !Grčarice Ribnica Masern Masharə Reifnitz Masern Malgern
Grcarske Ravne !Grčarske Ravne Ribnica Masereben Masharebn Reifnitz Masern Malgern
Gricice !Gričice Semič Obermitterdorf Gritschitzə Rudolfswerth Tschermoschnitz Tschermoschnitz Now part of Komarna Vas
Grintovec Kočevje Grintowitz Grintəbitz Gottschee Malgern Altlag Now part of Kleč
Hrib pri Koprivniku Kočevje Büchel Piechl Gottschee Nesseltal Nesseltal
Inlauf Kočevje Inlauf Inlaf, Enlaf Gottschee Morobitz Morobitz Now part of Borovec pri Kočevski Reki
Jelendol Ribnica Hirschgruben, Hirisgruben Hirisgruəbn Reifnitz Masern Malgern
Jelenja Vas, Iskrba Kočevje Hirisgruben, Hirschgruben Hirisgruəbə Gottschee Hinterberg Rieg Now part of Štalcerji
Kačji Potok Kočevje Otterbach Öttrpoch Gottschee Mösel Mösel
Kleč, Kleče Kočevje Kletsch (bei Altlag) Kletsch Gottschee Malgern Altlag
Kleč, Kleče Semič Kletsch (bei Stockendorf) Kletsch Tschernembl Stockendorf Stockendorf Now part of Planina
Klinja Vas Kočevje Klindorf Klindoarf Gottschee Seele Gottschee
Knežja Lipa Kočevje Graflinden pei dər Lintən Gottschee Graflinden Unterlag
Koblarji Kočevje Koflern Kowlarn, in de Kowlara Gottschee Mitterdorf Mitterdorf
Kocarji !Kočarji, Kožarji Kočevje Niedermösel Götscharə Gottschee Mösel Mösel
Koce !Koče Kočevje Kotschen Götschə Gottschee Kotschen Rieg
Kocevje !Kočevje Kočevje Gottschee Gətscheab, Stott, Stattle Gottschee Gottschee Gottschee
Kocevska Reka !Kočevska Reka Kočevje Rieg Riaggə, an dr Riəggn Gottschee Rieg Rieg
Kocevske Poljane !Kočevske Poljane Dolejnske Toplice Pollandl !Pöllandl Pelond Rudolfswerth Pollandl !Pöllandl Pollandl !Pöllandl
Komarna Vas Semič Muckendorf, Obertappelwerch Muckndoarf Rudolfswerth Tschermoschnitz Tschermoschnitz
Komolec Kočevje Komutzen Komüzə Seisenberg Langenton Unterwarmberg
Konca Vas, Konec Kočevje Ort Oart Gottschee Mitterdorf Mitterdorf
Konjski Hrib Semič Roßbüchel Röschpiechl Tschernembl Stockendorf Stockendorf Now part of Planina
Koprivnik Kočevje Nesseltal, Nesselthal Neßltol, Eßtol Gottschee Nesseltal Nesseltal
Kozice, Parga Kočevje Kositzen, Kositzenberg Afn Pargə[48] Gottschee Unterlag Unterlag Now part of Spodnji Log
Kuhlarji Kočevje Kuchlern !Küchlern Kichlarn Gottschee Mösel Mösel
Kukovo Dobrepolje Kukendorf Kukndoarf Gottschee Ebental Ebental Now part of Rapljevo
Kumrova Vas, Kumrovo Kočevje Kummerdorf Kümmrdoarf Gottschee Nesseltal Nesseltal Now part of Svetli Potok
Kunč Dolenjske Toplice Kuntschen Kuntschn Seisenberg Langenton Unterwarmberg Now part of Podstenice
Lahinja Semič Lachina Lachinə[49]:88 Tschernembl Stockendorf Stockendorf Now part of Planina
Lapinje Kočevje Neugereuth, Laubbüchel Lapiechl Gottschee Unterlag Unterlag Now part of Podlesje
Laze Novo Mesto Reuter, Reuther, Laase Reuter Rudolfswerth Tschermoschnitz Tschermoschnitz
Laze pri Oneku Kočevje Neufriesach Biedröß Gottschee Nesseltal Nesseltal
Lazec Loški Potok Gehack, Gehag Gəhack Gottschee Suchen Suchen
Livold Kočevje Lienfeld Liəwold Gottschee Lienfeld Gottschee
Luža Kočevje Lacknern, Laknern Seisenberg Langenton Unterwarmberg Now part of Komolec
Mackovec !Mačkovec Kočevje Katzendorf Kotzndoarf Gottschee Seele Gottschee
Mahovnik, Mošvald Kočevje Mooswald Mööschbold Gottschee Gottschee Gottschee
Mala Gora Kočevje Malgern Maugrarn Gottschee Malgern Mitterdorf
Mali Rigelj Dolenjske Toplice Kleinrigel, Schriegl Riegl Rudolfswerth Pollandl !Pöllandl Pollandl !Pöllandl
Maselj !Mašelj Semič Maschel Maschl Rudolfswerth Tschermoschnitz Tschermoschnitz
Mavrlen Crnomelj !Črnomelj Maierle Maiərle Tschernembl Döblitsch Tschernembl
Medvedjek Loški Potok Barenheim !Bärenheim Gottschee Obergras Suchen Now part of Trava
Miklarji Crnomelj !Črnomelj Brunngeräuth Prunngreit[48] Tschernembl Döblitsch Döblitsch
Mlaka Kočevje Kerndorf Kearndoarf Gottschee Mitterdorf Mitterdorf
Mlaka pri Kočevski Reki Kočevje Moos Möösch Gottschee Kotschen Rieg
Mokri Potok, Spodnji Vecenbah Kočevje Unterwetzenbach Üntrbetznpoch Gottschee Rieg Rieg
Morava Kočevje Mrauen Mragə Gottschee Hinterberg Rieg
Mozelj, Gorenji Mozelj Kočevje Obermösel, Mösel Öbrmesl, Mesl Gottschee Mösel Mösel
Mrtvice Kočevje Gschwend Gschwend Gottschee Mitterdorf Mitterdorf
Mrzli Potok Kočevje Kaltenbrunn Kaotnprunn Gottschee Göttenitz Göttenitz Now part of Gotenica
Muha Vas, Gorenja Turkova Draga Kočevje Oberfliegendorf Wliəgndoarf Gottschee Mösel Mösel
Nemška Loka Kočevje Unterdeutschau Agə Gottschee Unterdeutschau Unterdeutschau
Nova Gora Dolenjske Toplice Neuberg Neiəparg Rudolfswerth Tschermoschnitz Tschermoschnitz
Nove Ložine Kočevje Neuloschin Kuttlar Gottschee Mitterdorf Mitterdorf
Novi Breg Kočevje Neubacher Schupfə Gottschee Malgern Altlag Now part of Trnovec
Novi Kot Loški Potok Neuwinkel Neibinkl Gottschee Suchen Suchen
Novi Lazi Kočevje Hinterberg Hintrparg Gottschee Hinterberg Rieg
Novi Log, Mali Log Kočevje Neulag Shuəchə Gottschee Altlag Altlag Now part of Stari Log
Novi Tabor Semič Neutabor Tawr Rudolfswerth Tschermoschnitz Tschermoschnitz Now part of Črmošnjice
Občice Dolenjske Toplice Krapflern Kropflarn Rudolfswerth Pollandl !Pöllandl Pollandl !Pöllandl
Ograja Kočevje Suchenreuther, Suchenreuter Ziachnreitər Gottschee Hinterberg Rieg
Onek Kočevje Hohenegg Wrneggə Gottschee Seele Gottschee
Ovčjak Crnomelj !Črnomelj Schaflein !Schäflein Scheflein, Schaffle Gottschee Nesseltal Nesseltal Now part of Rožič Vrh
Pajkež, Zgornja Blaževica Dolenjske Toplice Oberblaschowitz Peikous Rudolfswerth Tschermoschnitz Tschermoschnitz Now part of Dobindol
Planina Semič Stockendorf də Aobə, Stockendoarf Tschernembl Stockendorf Stockendorf
Pleš Dolenjske Toplice Plösch Plesch Rudolfswerth Tschermoschnitz Tschermoschnitz Now part of Dobindol
Pleš Kočevje Plösch Plesch Gottschee Morobitz Morobitz Now part of Borovec pri Kočevski Reki
Podlesje, Ferdreng Kočevje Verdreng Wrdreng Gottschee Mösel Mösel
Podplanina Loški Potok Alben Untrdaubə Gottschee Obergras Suchen
Podpreska Loški Potok Merleinsraut, Merleinsrauth Malaschrout Gottschee Suchen Suchen
Podstene Kočevje Untersteinwand, Neubüchel Neipichl, Eipichl Gottschee Nesseltal Nesseltal
Podstenice Dolenjske Toplice Steinwand Stuoinbond Rudolfswerth Pollandl !Pöllandl Pollandl !Pöllandl
Pogorelec Dolenjske Toplice Pogorelz Pogrelz Rudolfswerth Pollandl !Pöllandl Pollandl !Pöllandl Now part of Podstenice
Polom Kočevje Ebental Ebentou, Ebntol Gottschee Ebental Ebental
Ponikve Semič Sporeben Schporebm Tschernembl Stockendorf Stockendorf Now part of Planina
Prerigelj Kočevje Prerigel Preariegl Gottschee Unterdeutschau Unterdeutschau
Preza !Preža Kočevje Pröse Preashə Gottschee Tiefenbach Rieg
Prezulje !Prežulje Kočevje Prasuln !Präsuln, Presuln Preshulə Gottschee Tiefenbach Morobitz
Primoži, Handlerji, Handlarji Kočevje Handlern Handlarə Gottschee Kotschen Rieg
Pugled pri Starem Logu Kočevje Hohenberg Hoachnparg Gottschee Altlag Altlag
Rajhenav Kočevje Reichenau Reichnagə Gottschee Nesseltal Nesseltal
Rajndol Kočevje Reinthal, Reintal Reintol Gottschee Mösel Mösel
Rampoha Dolenjske Toplice Dranbank Dranponk Rudolfswerth Pollandl !Pöllandl Pollandl !Pöllandl Now part of Občice
Ramsrigelj Kočevje Ramsriegel Ramschriegl Gottschee Unterlag Unterlag Now part of Knežja Lipa
Ravne Kočevje Eben Ebn, Ebnə Gottschee Morobitz Morobitz Now part of Borovec pri Kočevski Reki
Rdeči Kamen Kočevje Rotenstein Roatnstoin Seisenberg Langenton Unterwarmberg Now part of Komolec
Resa Semič Ressen Reasn Rudolfswerth Tschermoschnitz Tschermoschnitz Now part of Komarna Vas
Ribnik Semič Ribnig Rimmnig Rudolfswerth Tschermoschnitz Tschermoschnitz Now part of Komarna Vas
Rigelj Kočevje Riegel Riegl Gottschee Malgern Altlag Now part of Stari Breg
Rimsko, Remergrund Kočevje Romergrund !Römergrund Remrgründ Gottschee Graflinden Unterlag Now part of Knežja Lipa
Rodine Crnomelj !Črnomelj Rodine Tschernembl Tschernembl Tschernembl[50]
Rog Kočevje Hornwald Hoarnwald Rudolfswerth Pollandl !Pöllandl Pollandl !Pöllandl Now part of Trnovec
Rogati Hrib Kočevje Hornberg Hoarnparg Gottschee Hinterberg Rieg
Sadni Hrib, (Z)gornji Vecenbah Kočevje Oberwetzenbach Öbrbetznpoch Gottschee Rieg Rieg
Salka Vas !Šalka Vas Kočevje Schalkendorf Schaokndoarf Gottschee Seele Gottschee
Sec !Seč Kočevje Setsch Setsch Gottschee Ebental Ebental
Sec !Seč Novo Mesto Gehack, Gehag Gəhack Rudolfswerth Tschermoschnitz Tschermoschnitz Now part of Travni Dol
Senberk !Šenberk, Šenberg, Šenperg Kočevje Schonberg !Schönberg Scheanparg Gottschee Altlag Altlag Now part of Stari Log
Skrilj !Škrilj, Dolenje Zdihovo Kočevje Unterskrill Schkril Gottschee Mösel Mösel
Skrilj !Škrilj Semič Skrill Schgriel Tschernembl Stockendorf Stockendorf Now part of Planina
Slaba Gorica Crnomelj !Črnomelj Schlechtbüchel Schlachtpiechl Gottschee Nesseltal Nesseltal Now part of Rožič Vrh
Slovenska Vas Kočevje Windischdorf Bindischdoarf Gottschee Mitterdorf Mitterdorf
Smrečnik Semič Feichtbüchel Waichtpiechl Rudolfswerth Tschermoschnitz Tschermoschnitz Now part of Komarna Vas
Smuka Kočevje Langenton Zmuk Seisenberg Langenton Unterwarmberg
Spodnja Bilpa Kočevje Unterwilpen, Wilpen Pei dr Wilpn[48] Gottschee Unterlag Unterlag
Spodnja Bukova Gora, Dolenja Bukova Gora Kočevje Unterbuchberg Untrpuərchparg Gottschee Nesseltal Nesseltal Now part of Bukova Gora
Spodnji Log Kočevje Unterlag Ünterloag Gottschee Unterlag Unterlag
Spodnji Pokštajn Kočevje Unterpockstein Üntrpöckstuain Gottschee Unterlag Unterlag Now part of Podlesje
Sredgora Semič Mittenwald Mittnbold Tschernembl Stockendorf Stockendorf
Srednja Bukova Gora Kočevje Mitterbuchberg Mittrpuəchparg Gottschee Nesseltal Nesseltal Now part of Bukova Gora
Srednja Vas Semič Mitterdorf Mitterdoarf Rudolfswerth Tschermoschnitz Tschermoschnitz
Srednja Vas pri Dragi Loški Potok Mittergrass, Mittergras Hentərdiafle Gottschee Obergras Suchen
Srobotnik Dolenjske Toplice Gutenberg Liəlochpargəl Rudolfswerth Tschermoschnitz Tschermoschnitz Now part of Občice
Stalcerji !Štalcerji, Štalcarji Kočevje Stalzern Schtauzar Gottschee Hinterberg Rieg
Stale !Štale Semič Stalldorf Schtoll, Schtolldoarf Rudolfswerth Tschermoschnitz Tschermoschnitz Now part of Komarna Vas
Stara Cerkev Kočevje Mitterdorf Mittrdoaf Gottschee Mitterdorf Mitterdorf
Stare Žage Dolenjske Toplice Altsag Autshug, Aotschock Rudolfswerth Tschermoschnitz Tschermoschnitz
Stari Breg Kočevje Altbacher Pachrn Gottschee Malgern Altlag
Stari Kot Loški Potok Altwinkel Autbinkl Gottschee Obergras Suchen
Stari Log Kočevje Altlag Autloag Gottschee Altlag Altlag
Stari Tabor Semič Alttabor Autrtawr Rudolfswerth Tschermoschnitz Tschermoschnitz Now part of Brezovica pri Črmošnjicah
Staro Brezje Kočevje Altfriesach Wriəshoch Gottschee Nesseltal Nesseltal
Starološki Grič Semič Altlagbüchel Autlogpichl, Lockpiechl Gottschee Nesseltal Nesseltal Now part of Planina
Studeno Kočevje Brunnsee Sheab, Prunnsheab Gottschee Nesseltal Nesseltal Now part of Knežja Lipa
Suhi Potok, Suha Vas Kočevje Durnbach, Dürnbach Dürnpoch Gottschee Mösel Mösel
Susje !Sušje, Draga, Deroh Crnomelj !Črnomelj Suchen Därroch Gottschee Nesseltal Nesseltal Now part of Rožič Vrh
Svetli Potok Kočevje Lichtenbach Liəmpoch Gottschee Nesseltal Nesseltal
Tanči Vrh, Tancbihel, Tanče Gorice, Tancpihelj Kočevje Tanzbüchel Tonzpiechl Gottschee Nesseltal Nesseltal Now part of Hrib pri Koprivniku
Toplicice !Topličice Semič Toplitzel !Töplitzel Teplitzle Tschernembl Stockendorf Stockendorf Now part of Sredgora
Topli Vrh (nad Bistrico) Crnomelj !Črnomelj Warmberg Buərmparg Gottschee Nesseltal Nesseltal Now part of Rožič Vrh
Topli Vrh (pri Črmošnjicah) Semič Untertap(pe)lwerch Topobach Rudolfswerth Tschermoschnitz Tschermoschnitz Now part of Črmošnjice
Trava Loški Potok Obergrass, Obergras Woardearfle Gottschee Obergras Suchen
Travni Dol Novo Mesto Drandul Trandul Rudolfswerth Tschermoschnitz Tschermoschnitz
Travnik Semič Scherenbrunn, Grossberg Schernprün, Groschparg, Grasberg Rudolfswerth Tschermoschnitz Tschermoschnitz Now part of Komarna Vas
Trnovec Kočevje Tiefenreuter Trintəbitz Gottschee Malgern Altlag
Turkova Draga, Dolenja Turkova Draga Kočevje Unterfliegendorf Shuəchə, Tirknshuəchə, Peatscharə Gottschee Mösel Mösel Now part of Muha Vas
Turn Kočevje Turn, Thurn Türn Gottschee Graflinden Unterlag Now part of Knežja Lipa
Verderb, Ferderb Kočevje Verderb Vrderb Gottschee Mösel Mösel Now part of Podlesje
Vimolj Semič Wiederzug, Widerzug Bidrzug Rudolfswerth Tschermoschnitz Tschermoschnitz Now part of Srednja Vas
Vrbovec Kočevje Tiefental Tiəfntou, Tiəfntol Gottschee Ebental Ebental
Vrcice !Vrčice Semič Wertschitz, Wertschitsch Trtschitzə[48] Möttling Semitsch Semitsch
Zaderc Kočevje Saderz Saderz Tschernembl Tscheplach Unterlag Now part of Brezovica pri Predgradu
Zajčje Polje Kočevje Hasenfeld Huəshnbold Gottschee Schwarzenbach Gottschee
Zdihovo Kočevje Oberskrill Öbrschkril Gottschee Mösel Mösel
Zeljne !Željne Kočevje Seele Sheale Gottschee Seele Gottschee
Zgornji Pokštajn Kočevje Oberpockstein Öberpöckschtuein Gottschee Mösel Mösel Now part of Podlesje
Ziben !Žiben Kočevje Oberstein Schkibm Gottschee Altlag Altlag Now part of Pugled pri Starem Logu
Ribnica Brunn bei Masern Reifnitz Masern Malgern Only in the 1574 land registry; probably part of Grčarice[47]
Kočevje Fliegendorf Wliəgndoarf Gottschee Mösel Mösel See: Oberfliegendorf, Unterfliegendorf
Semič Friedbüchel Rudolfswerth Tschermoschnitz Tschermoschnitz Only in the 1574 land registry; probably absorbed into a village near Črmošnjice[47]
Semič Fünfzehn Huben Wemfzein Huabn Gottschee Kotschen Rieg A collective name for Primoži, Koče, and Mlaka pri Kočevski Reki[47]
Kočevje Gnadendorf Gnoudndoarf, Gnoudndaf[47] Gottschee Gottschee Gottschee Now part of Kočevje
Kočevje Hutterhäuser Gottschee Gottschee Gottschee Now part of Kočevje
Semič Rechgruben Rudolfswerth Tschermoschnitz Tschermoschnitz Only in the 1574 land registry[47]
Kočevje Moos bei Kerndorf Kearndoarf Gottschee Mitterdorf Mitterdorf Only in the 1574 land registry; probably part of Mlaka[47]

Notes

  1. ^ The original Latin source reads 1247, but this is considered an error by scholars.[13]

References

  1. ^ Jones, William Jervis. 2001. "Early Dialectology, Etymology and Language History in German Speaking Countries." In: Sylvain Auroux (ed.), History of the Language Sciences: An International Handbook on the Evolution of the Study of Language from the Beginnings to the Present (pp. 1105–1114). Berlin: de Gruyter, p. 1110.
  2. ^ Prolke, Herman. 2003. Genocide of the ethnic Germans in Yugoslavia, 1944-1948. Munich: Verlag der Donauschwäbischen Kulturstiftung, p. 34.
  3. ^ Prince, John Dyneley. 1931. "The Gottschee Germans of Slovenia." Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 70(4): 391–398.
  4. ^ Costello, John R. 1997. "German in New York." In: Oelia García & Joshua A. Fishman (eds.), The Multilingual Apple: Languages in New York City (pp. 71–92). Berlin: de Gruyter, p. 73.
  5. ^ Suschnigg, Peter. 1996. "A Sociological Profile of Austrian-Canadians." In Frederick C. Engelmann, Manfred Prokop, & Franz A. J. Szabo (eds.), History of the Austrian Migration to Canada (pp. 123–156) Ottawa: Carleton University Press, p. 156.
  6. ^ Hutton, Christopher. 1999. Linguistics and the Third Reich: Mother-Tongue Fascism, Race and the Science of Language. London: Routledge, p. 151.
  7. ^ Salminen, Tapani. 2007. "Endangered Languages in Europe and North Asia." In: Moseley, Christopher (ed.), Encyclopedia of the World's Endangered Languages (pp. 211–280). New York: Routledge, p. 246.
  8. ^ Tschinkel, Hans. 1908. Grammatik der Gottscheer Mundart. Halle: Max Niemeyer, p. 4.
  9. ^ Ferenc, Mitja. 2007. Nekdanji nemški jezikovni otok na kočevskem. Kočevje: Pokrajinski muzej, pp. 9–10.
  10. ^ Das Gottscheer Land Geographisch (German)
  11. ^ Petschauer, Erich. 1980. Das Jahrhundertbuch der Gottscheer. Klagenfurt: Leustik, p. 205.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Czörnig, Carl von. 1878. "Die deutsche Sprachinsel Gottschee." Zeitschrift des Deutschen und Oesterreichischen Alpenvereins 9: 273–287.
  13. ^ Schröer, Karl Julius. 1870. Wörterbuch der Mundart von Gottschee. Vienna: K. u. k. Staatsdruckerei, p. 13.
  14. ^ Tschinkel, Wilhelm. Gottscheer Volkstum in Sitte, Brauch, Märchen, Sagen, Legenden und anderen volkstümlichen Überlieferungen. Ljubljana: ZRC, p. 607.
  15. ^ Savnik, Roman, ed. 1971. Krajevni leksikon Slovenije, vol. 2. Ljubljana: Državna založba Slovenije, p. 231.
  16. ^ Hösler, Joachin. 2006. Slowenien: von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart. Regensburg: Pustet, p. 28.
  17. ^ a b Prince, John Dyneley. 1931. "The Gottschee Germans of Slovenia." Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 70(4): 391–398, p. 392.
  18. ^ a b Šumrada, Janez, & Tone Ferenc. 1991. "Kočevarji." Enciklopedija Slovenije, vol. 5. (pp. 179-181). Ljubljana: Mladinska knjiga.
  19. ^ Tomšič, Štefan, & Fran Ivanc. 1887. "Kočevsko okrajno glavarstvo. Zemljepisno-zgodovinski opis." Ljubljana: Narodna tiskarna, pp. 14–16.
  20. ^ Petschauer, Erich. 1980. Das Jahrhundertbuch der Gottscheer. Klagenfurt: Leustik, p. 51.
  21. ^ Petschauer, Erich. 1980. Das Jahrhundertbuch der Gottscheer. Klagenfurt: Leustik, p. 52.
  22. ^ Simonič, Ivan. 1934. "Migracije na Kočevskem v luči priimkov". Etnolog 7: 107–138, p. 122. (Slovene)
  23. ^ Preinfalk, Miha. 2005. Auerspergi: po sledeh mogočnega tura. Ljubljana: ZRC, p. 230.
  24. ^ Svoljšak, Petra. 1995. "Neodvisna kočevska republika." Kronika 43: 103–107, p. 106.
  25. ^ Matijevič, Meta. 1998. "Napad kmetov na francoske vojake v Novem mestu leta 1809." Kronika 46: 42–46, p. 44.
  26. ^ Riedl, Joseph. 1818.Charte von dem Koenigreiche Illyrian nach J. K. Kindermann. Vienna: Riedl.
  27. ^ a b Ferenc, Mitja. 1993. Kočevska. Izgubljena kulturna dediščina kočevskih nemcev. Ljubljana: Delo, p. 7.
  28. ^ Popovici, Aurel. 1906. Die Vereinigten Staaten von Groß-Österreich. Politische Studien zur Lösung der nationalen Fragen und staatrechtlichen Krisen in Österreich-Ungarn. Leipzig: B. Elischer nachfolger.
  29. ^ Jeglič, Anton Bonaventura. 1918. Diary (7 February). Cited in Pavlina Bobič. 2012. War and Faith: The Catholic Church in Slovenia, 1914–1918. Leiden: Brill, p. 220.
  30. ^ Frensing, Hans Herman. 1970. Die Umsiedlung der Gottscheer Deutschen. Munich: Oldenbourg, p. 10.
  31. ^ Auersperger, Alenka. 2004. Iskalci grala: poskus oživljanja nemške manjšine v Sloveniji. Ljubljana: Modrijan, p. 161.
  32. ^ Petschauer, Erich. 1980. Das Jahrhundertbuch der Gottscheer. Klagenfurt: Leustik, p. 89.
  33. ^ "Revolucijonarnost Kočevarjev." 1919. Clevelandska Amerika 22(6) (15 January): 2.
  34. ^ Žigon, Tanja. 2005. "Deutschsprachige Presse in Slowenien (1707-1945). 2. Teil: Deutschsprachige Presse in Krain von 1860 bis 1945." Berichte und Forschungen: Jahrbuch des Bundesinstituts für Ostdeutsche Kultur und Geschichte 13: 127–154, p. 150
  35. ^ "Dnevne novice." 1920. Slovenec 47(97) (29 April): 2.
  36. ^ Dravska banovina. Pregled srezov, sodnih okrajev in krajevnih občin. 1930. Map, 1:200,000. Ljubljana: Šumarski odsek Dravske banovine.
  37. ^ Ferenc, Mitja. 2007. Nekdanji nemški jezikovni otok na kočevskem. Kočevje: Pokrajinski muzej, p. 16.
  38. ^ Krajevni leksikon Dravske Banovine. 1937. Ljubljana: Zveza za tujski promet za Slovenijo, pp. 210, 225.
  39. ^ Ferenc, Mitja. 2007. Nekdanji nemški jezikovni otok na kočevskem. Kočevje: Pokrajinski muzej, p. 17.
  40. ^ Petschauer, Erich. 1980. Das Jahrhundertbuch der Gottscheer. Klagenfurt: Leustik, p. 110.
  41. ^ Entwurf zum Generalsiedlungsplan der Grenzsiedlungszone der Untersteiermark, reproduced in: Ferenc, Mitja. 1993. Kočevska. Izgubljena kulturna dediščina kočevskih nemcev. Ljubljana: Delo, p. 33.
  42. ^ Das Gottscheer Hochland (map)
  43. ^ Zdravko Troha (2004) Kočevski Nemci - partizani [fotografije Zdravko Troha, Pokrajinski muzej Kočevje, Arhiv Slovenije]. Ljubljana: Slovensko kočevarsko društvo Peter Kosler. ISBN 961-91287-0-2
  44. ^ Ulrich Weinzierl (2003) Wald und Wald und Wald, Spectrum - Die Presse, 15. November 2003.
  45. ^ a b Ferenc, Mitja. 2007. Nekdanji nemški jezikovni otok na kočevskem. Kočevje: Pokrajinski muzej, p. 4.
  46. ^ Ferenc, Mitja. 2007. Nekdanji nemški jezikovni otok na kočevskem. Kočevje: Pokrajinski muzej, p. 8.
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Petschauer, Erich. 1980. "Die Gottscheer Siedlungen – Ortsnamenverzeichnis." In Das Jahrhundertbuch der Gottscheer (pp. 181–197). Klagenfurt: Leustik.
  48. ^ a b c d e Perz, Josef. 1926. "Die Siedlungen des Gottscheerlandes" In: August Schauer (ed.) Gottscheer Kalender für das Jahr 1926. Nesselthal (Koprivnik): Author, pp. 70–72.
  49. ^ Ferenc, Mitja, & Gojko Zupan. 2012. Izgubljene kočevske vasi, vol. 2 (K–P). Ljubljana: Znanstvena založba Filozofske fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani.
  50. ^ BAKH - POT Glasilo Društva Kočevarjev staroselcev no. 15 (April 2003), p. 12 (German)

Further reading

  • Thomas F. Bencin. Gottschee: A History of a German Community in Slovenia from the Fourteenth to the Twentieth Century. Master's Thesis 1995. Lousville, CO.: Gottscheer Research and Genealogy Assn. 2003.
  • Joseph Erker. Jubiläums-Festbuch der Gottscheer 600-Jahrfeier: aus Anlaß des 600-jährigen Bestandes des Gottscheer Landes. Gottschee : Pavlicek, 1930. (German)
  • Mitja Ferenc. Kočevska: izgubljena kulturna dediščina kočevskih Nemcev; = Gottschee: Das verlorene Kulturerbe der Gottscheer Deutschen. Ljubljana: Zavod Republike Slovenije za varstvo naravne in kulturne dediščine, 1993.
  • Herber Otterstädt. Gottschee, verlorene Heimat deutscher Waldbauern, 1962. (German)
  • Petschauer, Erich. 1980. Das Jahrhundertbuch der Gottscheer. Klagenfurt: Hermann Leustik (German)
  • Schemitsch, Karl (Translated by Edith Herold) (1976). This was Gottschee. Klagenfurt/Graz: Self-published. 
  • Zdravko Troha (2004) Kočevski Nemci - partizani; = Gottschee Germans - Partisans [Pokrajinski muzej Kočevje, Arhiv Slovenije]. Ljubljana: Slovensko kočevarsko društvo Peter Kosler. ISBN 961-91287-0-2
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