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Department of Foreign Affairs (Philippines) | QuickiWiki

Department of Foreign Affairs (Philippines)

  EN

Overview

Department of Foreign Affairs
Kagawaran ng Ugnayang Panlabas
Department overview
Formed June 23, 1898
Headquarters DFA Building, Roxas Boulevard, Barangay 13, Pasay City
Annual budget 12.1 billion (2014)[1]
Department executive Albert del Rosario, Secretary
Website www.dfa.gov.ph


Seal of the Department of Foreign Affairs of the Philippines - Department of Foreign Affairs (Philippines)
Seal of the Department of Foreign Affairs of the Philippines

The Philippines' Department of Foreign Affairs (Filipino: Kagawaran ng Ugnayang Panlabas, DFA or KUP) is the executive department of the Philippine government tasked to contribute to the enhancement of national security and the protection of the territorial integrity and national sovereignty, to participate in the national endeavor of sustaining development and enhancing the Philippines' competitive edge, to protect the rights and promote the welfare of Filipinos overseas and to mobilize them as partners in national development, to project a positive image of the Philippines, and to increase international understanding of Philippine culture for mutually-beneficial relations with other countries.

History

Beginnings

The Department of Foreign Affairs was created on June 23, 1898 through a decree of Emilio Aguinaldo, who appointed Apolinario Mabini as the Philippines’s first Secretary of Foreign Affairs. In effect, the DFA became the first government department to be established following the proclamation of the First Philippine Republic in Malolos City in Bulacan. Realizing the need for international recognition to support the legitimacy of his government, Aguinaldo assigned Mabini the difficult task of establishing diplomatic relations with friendly countries. Members of the Hong Kong Junta, a group of Filipino exiles in Hong Kong, served as the country’s envoys for this purpose.

Post-War Philippines

During the period when the Philippines was a colony of the United States, the Government did not take an active role in the crafting and execution of its foreign policy. This was also the case during Japan's occupation of the Philippines from 1942 to 1944. The country regained full control of foreign affairs and diplomatic matters on July 4, 1946, when Commonwealth Act No. 732 was passed creating the Department of Foreign Affairs. On September 16, President Manuel Roxas issued Executive Order No. 18, which provided for the organization and operation of the DFA and the Foreign Service. The main tasks of the DFA then were to assist in postwar rehabilitation, formulate policies for the promotion of investment, and re-establish diplomatic relations with neighboring countries.

The DFA also proposed amendments to the Bell Trade Act, the RP-US Mutual Defense Treaty, and the Laurel-Langley Agreement with the United States, which helped to strengthen trade and military relations with the US, and at the same time initiating the Philippines into the arena of independent foreign policy.

The DFA had its heyday during the post-war years, with its increased participation in the international arena. At that time, the international environment was beginning to change, requiring that new thrusts and priorities in Philippine foreign policy be determined. During the Cold War, against the backdrop of the Korean War in 1950 and rising communism in China, the Philippines projected an increasing internationalist foreign policy. The Philippines helped forge the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade or GATT in 1949, became a founding member of the United Nations and one of the drafters of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and was among the early proponents of disarmament and non-interference in the internal affairs of free peoples. The Philippines' greater participation in global matters culminated in Carlos P. Romulo’s election as the first Asian President of the UN General Assembly in 1952.

Realizing the importance of foreign relations, President Elpidio Quirino pushed for the passage of the Foreign Service Law in June 1952, as embodied in Republic Act (RA) No. 708. During the post-war period, the Department of Foreign Affairs focused on institution-building, while simultaneously increasing Philippine global exposure. In 1953, Secretary Raul S. Manglapus instituted the Foreign Service Officers (FSOs) examination to professionalize the Foreign Service and improve the recruitment and selection of new FSOs.

Under Marcos

President Ferdinand Marcos redefined foreign policy as the protection of Philippine independence, territorial integrity and national dignity, and emphasized increased regional cooperation and collaboration. He placed great stress on being Asian and pursued a policy of constructive unity and co-existence with other Asian states, regardless of ideological persuasion. In 1967, the Philippines launched a new initiative to form a regional association with other Southeast Asian countries called the Association of Southeast Asian Nations or ASEAN. It was also during this period that the Philippines normalized economic and diplomatic ties with socialist countries such as China and the USSR, which he visited in 1975 and 1976, respectively. The Philippines also opened embassies in the eastern bloc countries, and a separate mission to the European Common Market in Brussels.

Throughout the 1970s, the DFA pursued the promotion of trade and investment, played an active role in hosting international meetings, and participated in the meetings of the Non-Aligned Movement. The Foreign Service Institute was created in 1976 to provide in-house training to Foreign Service personnel.

DFA Main Office, Roxas Blvd. - Department of Foreign Affairs (Philippines)
DFA Main Office, Roxas Blvd.

Post-EDSA 1986

The 1986 EDSA Revolution saw the re-establishment of a democratic government under President Corazon Aquino. During this period, the DFA once again pursued development policy, in the active pursuit of opportunities abroad in the vital areas of trade, investment, finance, technology and aid. The DFA also revived its efforts to boost the Philippine’s role in the Asia-Pacific region.

During this period, the Philippines became one of the founding members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation or APEC in November 1989, and an active player in regional efforts to establish the ASEAN Free Trade Area. In 1990, the DFA proposed the establishment of more diplomatic missions to the Middle East to improve existing ties with Arab states and to respond to the growing needs of Overseas Filipino Workers in the region.

In 1991, the Philippine Senate, heeding the growing nationalist sentiments among the public, voting against the extension of the Military Bases Agreement. This symbolized the severance of the political and ideological ties which had long linked the country to the United States. Also in 1991, President Aquino into law R.A. 7157, otherwise known as the New Foreign Service Law, which reorganized and strengthened the Foreign Service. It instituted a Career Minister Eligibility Examination as a requirement for promotion of FSOs to the rank of Minister Counsellor, thereby ensuring the professional selection of those who would eventually rise to the level of career ambassadors.

Under Fidel V. Ramos

The Ramos administration from July 1992 to June 1998 defined four core areas of Philippine foreign policy: the enhancement of national security, promotion of economic diplomacy, protecting Overseas Filipino Workers and Filipino nationals abroad, the projection of a good image of the country abroad.

The Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995 provided the framework for stronger protection of Filipino workers abroad, with the creation of the Legal Assistance Fund and the Assistance-to-Nationals Fund, and the designation in the DFA of a Legal Assistant for Migrant Workers’ Affairs, with the rank of Undersecretary.

Among the other significant events in foreign affairs during the Ramos years were the adoption by ASEAN in 1992, upon Philippine initiative, of the Declaration on the South China Sea, aimed at confidence-building and the avoidance of conflict among claimant states; the establishment of the Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines (BIMP)-East Asia Growth area in 1994; the establishment of the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) in 1994 as the only multilateral security dialogue in the Asia-Pacific region conducted at the government level, and the signing between the Philippine Government and the MNLF on September 2, 1996 of the Mindanao Peace Agreement.

Estrada Administration

The Estrada administration upheld the foreign policy thrusts of the previous administration, focusing on national security, economic diplomacy, assistance to nationals, and image-building. The Philippines continued to be at the forefront of the regional and multilateral arena. It successfully hosted the ASEAN Ministerial Meeting in July 1998 and undertook confidence-building measures with China over South China Sea issue through a meeting in March 1999. President Estrada strengthened bilateral ties with neighboring countries with visits to Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Hong Kong, Japan, and South Korea.

The DFA also played a major role in the forging of a Visiting Forces Agreement with the United States, which was ratified in the Senate. The country also sent a delegation of 108 observers to the Indonesian parliamentary elections, and engaged in cooperative activities in the areas of security, defense, combating transnational crimes, economy, culture, and the protection of OFWs and Filipinos abroad.

Offices of the Department

The DFA has eleven principal offices. The geographic offices manage political and economic relations in different regions and pursue Philippine interests in multilateral organizations, These include the following:

  • Office of American Affairs
  • Office of Asia and Pacific Affairs
  • Office of European Affairs
  • Office of Middle East and African Affairs
  • Office of ASEAN Affairs
  • Office of United Nations and International Organizations.

The line offices are the following:

  • Office of Personnel and Administrative Services
  • Office of Legal Affairs
  • Office of Consular Affairs
  • DFA Office of Protocol

Pampanga Office

The DFA holds office at San Fernando, Pampanga.

List of Philippine embassies

Countries in bold mean that the said mission is located within their territory.

Country Location Ambassador[2]
 Argentina
 Bolivia
 Paraguay
 Uruguay
Buenos Aires Rey A. Carandang
 Australia
 Nauru
 Tuvalu
 Vanuatu
Canberra Belén F. Anota
 Austria
 Croatia
 Slovakia
 Slovenia
Vienna Lourdes O. Yparraguirre
 Bahrain Manama Sahid S. Glang
 Bangladesh
 Sri Lanka
 Maldives
Dhaka Bahnarim A. Guinomla
 Belgium
 European Union
 Luxembourg
Brussels Victoria S. Bataclan
 Brazil
 Colombia
 Guyana
 Suriname
Brasilia Eva G. Betita
 Brunei Bandar Seri Begawan Nestor Z. Ochoa
 Cambodia Phnom Penh Noe A. Wong
 Canada Ottawa Leslie B. Gatán
 Chile
 Peru
 Ecuador
Santiago Ma. Consuelo Puyat-Reyes
 China
 Hong Kong
 Macau
 Mongolia
 North Korea
Beijing Erlinda Basílio
 Czech Republic Prague Evelyn D. Austria-García
 Egypt
 Djibouti
 Eritrea
 Ethiopia
 South Sudan
 Sudan
Cairo Claro S. Cristobal
 France
 Monaco
Paris Cristina G. Ortega
 Germany Berlin Ma. Cleofe R. Natividad
 Greece
 Cyprus
 Macedonia
Athens Meynardo L.B. Montealegre
 Hungary
 Bosnia and Herzegovina
 Montenegro
 Serbia
Budapest Eleanor L. Jaucian
 India
   Nepal
New Delhi Benito B. Valeriano
 Indonesia Jakarta Ma. Rosario C. Aguinaldo
 Iran Tehran Rosario P. Lemque, Chargé d' Affaires, a.i.
 Iraq Baghdad Marlowe A. Miranda, Chargé d' Affaires, a.i.
 Israel Tel-Aviv Generoso D.G. Calonge
 Italy
 Albania
 Malta
 San Marino
Rome Virgilio A. Reyes, Jr.
 Japan Tokyo Manuel M. López
 Jordan Amman Olivia V. Palala
 Kenya
 Burundi
 Comoros
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
 Madagascar
 Malawi
 Mauritius
 Republic of the Congo
 Rwanda
 Seychelles
 Somalia
 Tanzania
 Uganda
Nairobi Domingo D. Lucenario, Jr.
 Kuwait Kuwait City Shulan O. Primavera
 Laos Vientiane Ma. Lumen B. Isleta
 Lebanon Beirut Leah B. Ruíz
 Libya
 Malta
Tripoli Oscar G. Orcine
 Malaysia Kuala Lumpur José Eduardo E. Malaya III
 Mexico
 Belize
 Costa Rica
 El Salvador
 Guatemala
 Honduras
 Nicaragua
 Panama
Mexico City George B. Reyes
 Myanmar Yangon Alex G. Chua
 Netherlands The Hague Lourdes G. Morales
 New Zealand
 Fiji
 Samoa
 Tonga
Wellington Virginia H. Benavidez
 Nigeria
 Benin
 Burkina Faso
 Cameroon
 Cape Verde
 Central African Republic
 Côte d'Ivoire
 Equatorial Guinea
 Gabon
 Gambia
 Ghana
 Guinea
 Guinea-Bissau
 Liberia
 São Tomé and Príncipe
 Senegal
 Sierra Leone
 Togo
Abuja Alex V. Lamadríd
 Norway
 Denmark
 Finland
 Iceland
 Sweden
Oslo Bayani S. Mercado
 Oman Muscat Joselito A. Jimeno
 Pakistan
 Afghanistan
 Kazakhstan
 Kyrgyzstan
 Tajikistan
Islamabad Conrado B. Demdem, Chargé d' Affaires, a.i.
 Papua New Guinea
 Kiribati
 Solomon Islands
Hohola Bienvenido V. Tejano
 Poland
 Estonia
 Latvia
 Lithuania
Warsaw Patricia Ann V. Paez
 Portugal Lisbon Philippe J. Lhuillier
 Qatar Doha Crescente R. Relación
 Russia
 Armenia
 Belarus
 Turkmenistan
 Ukraine
 Uzbekistan
Moscow Alejandro B. Mosquera
 Saudi Arabia
 Yemen
Riyadh Ezzedin H. Tago
 Singapore Singapore City Minda Calaguian-Cruz
 South Africa
 Angola
 Botswana
 Lesotho
 Mozambique
 Namibia
 Swaziland
 Zambia
 Zimbabwe
Pretoria Constancio R. Vingno, Jr.
 South Korea Seoul Luis T. Cruz
 Spain
 Andorra
 Morocco
Madrid Carlos C. Salinas
  Switzerland
 Liechtenstein
Bern Leslie J. Baja
 Syria Damascus Nestor N. Padalhin, Chargé d' Affaires, e.p.
 Timor Leste Dili Ma. Aniceta Aileen H. Bugarin
 Thailand Bangkok Jocelyn S. Batoon-García
 Turkey
 Azerbaijan
 Georgia
Ankara Marilyn J. Alarilla
 United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi Grace R. Princesa
 United Kingdom
 Ireland
London Enrique A. Manalo
 United Nations New York City Libran N. Cabactulan
 United States
 U.S. Virgin Islands
 Grenada
 Puerto Rico
Washington, D.C. José L. Cuisia, Jr.
  Vatican City
 Sovereign Military Order of Malta
Rome Mercedes Arrastia Tuason
 Vietnam Hanoi Jerril G. Santos

List of Philippine Consulates General

Country Location Consul General[3]
 Australia Sydney Anne J. Louis
 Canada Toronto Junever Mahilum-West
Vancouver José Arthur P. Ampeso
 China Chongqing Amelita C. Aquino
Guangzhou Raly L. Tejada
Hong Kong Noel Eugene Eusébio M. Servigon
Macau Danilo Ibayan
Shanghai Charles C. José
Xiamen Adelio Angelito C. Cruz
 Indonesia Manado José D.R. Burgos
 Italy Milan Lourdes S. Tabamo
 Japan Osaka Ma. Teresa L. Taguiang
 Saudi Arabia Jeddah Uriel Norman R. Garibay
 United Arab Emirates Dubai Frank Cimafranca
 United States Hagåtña Bayani V. Mangibin
Chicago Leo Herrera-Lim
Honolulu Julius D. Torres
Los Angeles Ma. Hellen Barber-dela Vega
New York City Mario L. de León, Jr.
San Francisco Marciano A. Paynor, Jr.

List of the Secretaries of the Department of Foreign Affairs

References

  1. ^ "GAA2014". DBM. Retrieved 23 January 2014. 
  2. ^ "Philippine Embassies". Department of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 16 October 2010. 
  3. ^ "Philippine Consulates General". Retrieved 16 October 2010. 
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