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Aliens Act 1905 | QuickiWiki

Aliens Act 1905

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Overview

Aliens Act, 1905[1]

Long title An Act to amend the Law with regard to Aliens.
Chapter 5 Edw. 7 c. 13
Dates
Royal Assent 11 August 1905
Other legislation
Repealing legislation Aliens Restriction (Amendment) Act 1919
Status: Repealed


The Aliens Act 1905 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.[2] The Act for the first time introduced immigration controls and registration, and gave the Home Secretary overall responsibility for immigration and nationality matters.[2] The Act was designed to prevent paupers or criminals from entering the country and set up a mechanism to deport those who slipped through. One of its main objectives was to control Jewish immigration from Eastern Europe.[3]

Demands for restriction

Anti-immigration poster, from 1902 - Aliens Act 1905
Anti-immigration poster, from 1902

In the 19th century, Tsarist Russia was home to about five million Jews, at the time, the "largest Jewish community in the world".[3] Subjected to religious persecution, they were obliged to live in the Pale of Settlement, on the Polish-Russian borders, in conditions of great poverty.[3] About half left, mostly for the United States, but many - about 150,000 - arrived in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, mostly in England.[3] This reached its peak in the late 1890s, with "tens of thousands of Jews ... mostly poor, semi-skilled and unskilled" settling in the East End of London.[3]

By the turn of the century, a popular and media backlash had begun.[3] The British Brothers League was formed, with the support of prominent politicians, organising marches and petitions.[3] At rallies, its speakers said that Britain should not become "the dumping ground for the scum of Europe".[3] In 1905, an editorial in the Manchester Evening Chronicle[4] wrote "that the dirty, destitute, diseased, verminous and criminal foreigner who dumps himself on our soil and rates simultaneously, shall be forbidden to land".

Notes

  1. ^ Short title as conferred by s. 10 of the Act; the modern convention for the citation of short titles omits the comma after the word "Act"
  2. ^ a b Moving Here
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Channel 4
  4. ^ Quoted by Channel 4: Immigration

Further reading

  • Feldman, David. "Was the Nineteenth Century a Golden Age for Immigrants?" in Andreas Fahrmeir et al., eds. Migration Control in the North Atlantic World: The Evolution of State Practices in Europe and the United States from the French Revolution to the Inter-War Period (2003), pp 167–77 shows the actual impact of the 1905 law was small and largely bureaucratic.
  • Garrard, John A. The English and Immigration, 1880-1910 (1971)
  • Gartner, Lloyd A. The Jewish Immigrant in England 1870-1914, London (1960): Simon Publications. ISBN ) 908620 00 6
  • Pellew, Jill. "The Home Office and the Aliens Act, 1905," The Historical Journal, Vol. 32, No. 2 (Jun., 1989), pp. 369–385 in JSTOR
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